GEOG 202 W3 L6.doc

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University of Waterloo
Geography and Environmental Management
GEOG 202
Claire Mitchell

GEOG 202 Lec 6 THURS 27th sept. What about the economy has -->MOP : the way a society meets the needs and wants of its members --> goals? what it means after? 1. Subsistent: ---> The Goal: to meet the basic needs of society, to ensure an equitable distribution of resources. (An Egalitarian society- believes in equity, distributed equally even resources) ---> The Means - engaged in two activities, hunting & agriculture(gatherer). Then produces an output and share it; the output sometimes can be from batered. -->Hunting & Gathering Direct function of the land resource, entire life is bound to the earth, producing relatively small amounts. living with extend family, migration, areas to extract goods from nature i.e berries. -->current locations of hunters & gatherers: i.e. north America, Natives; Africa- tribes; Australia -aboriginals. becoming more modern, some are pure gatherers, others not. --> Agriculture: Origins: 12,000 years ago, Neolithic revolution-> increased ecological knowledge, climate change, improvements in technology (weapons= more hunting), population growth? Started in Fertile Crescent, the birth of agriculture; also some other key areas 1500 AD, practiced internationally -->Types of activities: 1. shifting Cultivation (Slash & burn/ Swidden agriculture): slash it then burn it; clearing it- multiple seeds into the ground& moving in diff locations 2. intensive subsistence- lots of labour input, e.g. rice; usually quite central. Located only one location 3. pastoral nomadism- extreme conditions, food, clothing etc all taken from those animals i.e. a herd ; Tibet is high nomadism; gov enforced to live in communities, reduce their nomadism --> approx 45% are still using agricultural activity, i.e. nomadism, shipping cultivation --> 2. Feudal Mode The origin: GEOG 202 Lec 6 THURS 27th sept. • Collapse of the roman empire (753BC, flourished till 4th century due to invasions, nearby tribes then lead to collapse) • creation of kingdoms (large areas of land that needs to be governed and protected) • rise of feudalism 5-14th century (political system, provide governance and protection for the kingdoms) • creation of a Feudal Mop --> the goal: to create a largely self sufficient society, whose members are organised hierarchically and have mutual obligations Top: Kings then down to Peasants (A rank society, people are divided up into classes, distinguished by power & wealth) huge contrasts king gives lord land, lord takes care of land and swears allegiance to the king so on --> THE MEANS Peasants engage in two types of production: agriculture & craft production; whose output is then redistributed the peasants are always tied to the land! bound up with growing enough food for own family but also for Lord and eventually to King --> location of the feudal mode in western europe, up until the 18th and it began to disintegrat
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