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Lecture 15

GEOG101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Industrial Revolution, Tertiary Sector Of The Economy, Bauxite

Geography and Environmental Management
Course Code
Elijah Bisung

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GEOG 101
Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Activities
SecondaryQuaternary sectors of economic activity
Economic activity spatial connections
o Mostl oder aufaturig ulike tet
o Loatioal fators for aufaturig aka. idustrial loatio theor
Spatial Aspects of Economic Activity
Economic activities:
o Ties to a physical environment/resources
Strong: Primary
o Location of resources
o Processing/refining
o Labour moves to resources
Weaker: SecondaryTertiaryQuaternary
o The oilit of apital
o Locating near the customer
o Telecommuting, teleconferencing, IT connectivity
Secondary Sector
Manufacturing adds value greater than the sum of the raw materials used
Secondary sector = value added
Industrialization Mass produtio effiie, divisio of laour/speializatio &
o Quantity of goods rose
o Limited diffusion (technology guarded)
Prices dropped global distribution
Only certain locations (capitals + raw materials)
Modern Manufacturing
Modern manufacturing location highly cost dependent
o Labour costs (minimum wages, training)
o Energy costs
o Linkage costs (e.g. complementary suppliers)
o Transportation
Raw materialsplant markets
o Taxes
Direct and Indirect Factors of Production
Direct (cost varies by location)
o Raw materials
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GEOG 101
o Labour
o Financial capital
o Markets
o Energy
o Technology
o Transportation
o Infrastructure
o Financial system
o Government support
o Education / training
o Entrepreneurship
o Taxes
EX. Location of Aluminum Production
Rio Tinto Alcan
Refined bauxite shipped 15,000 kms from Australia to Kitimat
Kitimat: final refinement & smeltingpure aluminum
o Location of industrial production
Industrial location Theory
Least-cost theory Point at which total of all costs associated with industry are
o Triangle (simple)
o Plane table (simple)
o Computerized modeling (complex, modern, 100s of changing variables)
S1: Raw material source 1
S2: Raw material source 2
M: Market
P: Manufacturing Plant Location
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