26 September 2012
Who is German (Swiss/Austrian) now?
Article 116: [Definition of “German” – Restoration of citizenship]
1. Unless otherwise provided by a law, a German within the meaning of this Basic Law is a person
who possesses German citizenship or who has been admitted to the territory of the German
Reich within the boundaries of 31 December 1937 as a refugee or expellee of German ethnic
origin or as the spouse or descendant of such person.
2. Former German citizens, who between 30 January 1933 and 8 May 1945 were deprived of their
citizenship on political, racial or religious grounds, and their descendants, shall on application
have their citizenship restored. They shall be deemed never to have been deprived of their
citizenship if they have established their domicile in Germany after 8 May 1945 and have not
expressed a contrary intention.
Definitions of Citizenship
o Principle of birthright based on birthplace (soil)
o Principle of birthright based on descent (blood)
o Principle of birthright based on residence (domicile)
- In 1913, many Jewish people were trying to get into Germany.
- 1999, the law changed stating that people don’t have to be of German blood to be a citizen.
West Germany Switzerland
Huge need for foreign labour They didn’t receive any $ from Marshall
Generous asylum laws (pre-1993) Plan, but donated into it
Generous social system Huge need for foreign labour
Conservative asylum laws
Austria Social system relatively underdeveloped
Some need for foreign labour
Harsh asylum laws
Social system favours citizens
Period of recruitment and influx: the original idea was to bring in people for 6 months and trade
them out for new workers.
o Businesses had a problem with it since they didn’t want to go through the effort of
training new workers
West Germany 1955 – 1973/4