17 September 2012
E- and U-Kultur
E-Kultur= Elitekultur/ernste Kultur (elite/serious culture, “high culture”)
U-kultur= Unterhaltungs-kultur (entertainment culture, “mass culture”) culture that just passes
the time is bad
Why do we talk more about Germany more than Austria and Switzerland?
Common standard language and literature
More scholarship on German history and culture
More studies done in German society and demographics
…particularly in English, not that many
Population is also a factor which is estimated to be (July 2012):
o Germany = 81,305,856
o Austria = 8,219,743
o Switzerland = 5,151,586
Canada is to USA, as Austria is to Germany
Charles the Great, Circa 800
o Approx. 1 ½ Snookis (7 feet tall)
The Empire Divided in 850 AD
900 AD the princes of the previous empires were under pressure by the Vikings and Mohács.
And so declared a major ruler in order to fight against, thus the empire was reborn. Was
also known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
The empire was not a cohesive process; in times of war, the Germans wanted an emperor,
but in times of peace (which were most of the time) they wanted them gone.
There were uncertain times when people didn’t know who take orders from: the emperor or
Albrecht II came from a family (the Habsburgs) known for obtaining land from strategic
After the death of his paternal grandfather in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg Monarchy.
With the help of the wealthy Fugger family, Charles was elected Emperor through a
combination of threats and bribes to the electors.
He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England.
The unanimous decision of the electors gave Charles the crown on 28 June 1519.
In 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last
Emperor to receive a papal coronation.
Despite holding the imperial throne, Charles' real authority was limited by the German
princes. They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was
determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands.
An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced
for all cases of unrepentant heresy. 17 September 2012
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821)
Much of Charles' reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by
Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy.
On his way to Russia, he went through Germany and made simplified maps.
He made the emperor give up his crown and kicked him out of power.
He lost his Austrian emperorship but still had Hungary; he still wasn’t the Holy Roman emperor
Congress of Vienna (1815) was established in order to decide what to do after napoleon was
gone. Some thought of going back to the way it was but not many agreed.
Unification of Germany
The German confederation was only a concept when France and Spain had been countries for a
few centuries already.
The two converging sects over who would rule were Prussia and Austria.
1870 – Franco-Prussian war: Wilhelm I said that the King of Prussia would not accept the
1871 – Germany became a single nation under Kaiser Wilhelm I expertly crafted by Otto von
THE GERMAN KAISERS: Wilhelm I (1871-1888), Friedrich (1888), Wilhelm II (1888-1918)
Wilhelm II hated his parents and wanted absolute rule like Napoleon.
WWI – Austria was outdated in military technology leaving Germany to face off against France,
Russia, and England.
Given a few more months Germany could have won, but it was stabbed in the back by the
working class (communism) and the Jewish French.
The Austrian lost so much territory that after the war, they even petitioned to join Germany.
Leader, social democratic party, 1913-1925
President of Germany, 1919-1925
The Ebert-Groener Pact – that the army would stage a coup d’état against the gov’t
Oct 1929: Depression
The war that was once so glorious were now seen as criminal and led to Germany’s massive
inflation in the economy since they were ma