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A Re-Awakening.docx

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University of Waterloo
HIST 110
Sebastian Siebel- Achenbach

HIST 110 A RE-AWAKENING WED. OCT. 31  Social structures changed: serfdom destroyed  Thousands of people in town  Trade was increased between towns, trade increasing all over Europe to Mediterranean, luxurious goods come from middle east exchanged grains/oils/metals  Universalist Church  Towns/urban environment (added wealth), universities (brought in different ideals), creation of nation states (led by kings who’s outlook was on certain religion, certain cultural associations, all spoke similar language, came from similar tribe) o Nation states: beginning of France  Natural disaster: black death o Plagues struck Europe in way never existed before o Mid 14 century o 1/3 Europeans died Political development, formation of states  One state that claimed to be universalist: Holy Roman Empire o Founded by Charlemagne 800 o Claimed to represent all of Europe o German Emperors see as their duty to take political structures in Germany and export them, exported to Italy because it’s heartland of empire, if you control Italy = control rest of Italy  Germans exported system of government  Got involved in Italian affairs, went against papacy  Italians and Germans divided  Italians divided into support emperor, other supported Pope, Pope able to convince political influences that they were better with papal interests  Holy roman empire became fragmented  Over 3,000 states that claimed sovereignty by 1500, each owed loyalty to emperor  What would become German & Italy became small states that no one had control of o In holy roman empire had 5 major dynasties that claimed to be rulers of holy roman empire o Karl IV 1347-1378  Liaison of Luxemburg and Premysl  Karl recognized he didn’t have a lot of authority  Formed first university in Prague in 1438  Translated Latin/German texts into Czech, first time Slavic language taken seriously  1356: Golden Bull there are 7 princes within the holy roman empire who would determine succession, given vote, 7 spaced out in empire to give balance, all princes held total control over their territory o Holy roman empire stretched to east, started in Germany  Went east to Christianized people HIST 110 A RE-AWAKENING WED. OCT. 31  France & England were narrowly based, didn’t have universalist claim o Henry II unified English state o Problems between English & French: concerning Flanders (Belgium)  English had economic attachment to Flanders  French wanted territory of Flanders, French said it as their heritage  Earth 14 century uprising between workers & owners in Flanders  Flanders were wealthy rd o 3 problem between English & French: Succession  French had issues with succession because no male heir  Closet relationship Isabel married to English king who had son: Edward II  France didn’t want English king  Didn’t want big unified state  Argument against Edward II, he was maternal line  Edward II was out  Philip 4 made claims to southwest part of French, that English should give it up  Hundreds year war 1337-1453  Wasn’t continuous war, went on in campaigns (summer’s duration), some summers had no campaigning  War continued between English & French for over hundred years  English started war, French won  France was more
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