WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3RD, 2012
-entrenched popular will, lowest runs had ability to vote
-roman republic developed remarkably, ethos(mind-set pitas) set them apart (if one did good for
community, not just self-¸
-pietas became cornerstone, another foundation stone was Mos(mores) majorium ‘ convention’
Roman Society
-Mos (mores) maiorum ‘convention’
-not allowing certain outbursts, continuum, foundation was father should have ultimate
authority --.maintained property, conservative (preserve), senate became institute of authority,
did not have power enough was made decisions (difficult to go against that) strong social epochs
= main difference b/w Greek- community
-because of these cornerstones able to have many wars of conquest, constant, seems
endless battles, controlling north and south (favored by Carthaginians) Rome crossed
line (Sicily) their territory Punic Wars
-Second major
-when third completed, Rome was master, controlled Carthaginians, Portugal, Africa,
became imperial power(not emperor, empire
-Rome acquired huge amounts of gold, became a wash with money (politics +
money = corruption) all that more enticing the become in legal system, money
could sway popular opinion by bribery (more food for romans (free from states),
circuses being entertained (spectacles evolve into gladiators)
-money also used to set certain people apart from others, allowed people to
buy certain status- usually meant something Greek educated in Greek arts of
rhetoric sophisticated as well as persuasive, philosophy, composer, writer,
poet set you apart
-also got you trinkets set you apart- buy land, togas, horses people with
money bought more and more land (Punic vs Carthaginians) small pop gaining
more
-problems: people who worked land forced off land, migrated to cities
(Rome) by Augustus had ¾ of a million people, = created huge ‘Latifundia’
-Lucius Sergius Catilina
-Latifundia ‘broad fields’ or great estates
-large estates controlled by:
-Nobiles aristocrats
-used slaves as laborers, could number in1000/100s in south and Sicily, allowed owners live
different lifestyle than common Romans, problem with concentration in property was Roman
army (dependent on peasants, little land to be backbone (number of army shrink) got
conquered people to join army-integrate non-Romans but still deficit meant army not as
strong
-other problem: stayed cities as mobs, lived of gratuity of state, affinity for state decrease- no
attachment
-polarized society by end of 1st century elite w/ money, Greek/Hellinistic ideals, saw
themselves as different, openly displayed it vs. common people who were displaced
-Tiberius (163-133 B.C.) and Gaius (153-121 B.C.) Gracchi
-two brother reformers recognized problems of Roman society, set to transform so can stand
another century by itself, first republican, first ran as a tribune (134BC successful, platform was to
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WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3RD, 2012
reform society- argued redistribution of land to those who had roots in country (recently displaced)
knew majority of senators would be opposed (b/c fearful, their land) Tiberius recognized not succeed,
went directly to people, called assembly of people redistribute at state’s expense into irrigable land
made some missteps, in end 133BC assassinated by a senator
-brother Gaius 10 years later definitional change in citizens overwhelm conservative, elite
recognized danger, vetoed, assassinated
-didn’t get very far, but left mark, other were to recognize dangers of Rome, and wanted to
change it
-generation later invasions by Celts, Germanic tribes highly successful, set off panic by
senators caused havoc in states
-Optimates favouring Senate
-old men, who had means, many senators bought seat, or leisure to speak well to
-Populares favouring people
-lessening of differential
-Marius (c. 155-86 B.C.)
-general placed to overcome chaos of Celts, Germanic successful b/c increases army by less
than qualification, gains appreciation, beaten off by 101BC, but he sees changes needed to be
taken place, realized what soldiers, and veterans want was land
-as reward of showing pitas, demands land distribution senate refuses
-forced to flee Cartage
-returns to Rome, forms conspiracy, b/c no army, releases reign of terror, sought out
and executed (senates and magistrates) while Sulla is off
-Sulla returns and roots off, kills them as much as possible, as reward himself he declares
himself as dictator allowed under Roman law ‘emergency member’ only for 6 months –
relinquished control instead he stayed on, continued, at head of army, no one tried to stop,
senate only had authority ‘convention’ precedent’ no army – constantly challenge
-relinquished power after 3 years resigned with some degree of honor
-precedent had been sent, military had tasted power, dictate how empire would
run/function
-Cornelius Sulla (c. 138-78 B.C.)
- head another army to beat off another group in Asia Minor an ambitious King to untie
everyone and Greek to go against Rome
-ordered Sulla to go against, completed the job, got rid of pirates, Mithadatrus
-First Triumvirate:
-Gnaeus Pompeisus (Pompey, 106-48 B.C.)
-general, instructed by senate go after people first in Italy,
-wanted to continue, not stop, gave ultimatum in Spain that he should leave
army, with troops close to Rome granted him this opportunity success desire made
into console - young 33yrs had not gotten up, senate hesitated, saw another Roman
Army not far away from :
-Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115-53 B.C.)
-defeated last slave army 71BC asked if he would put Pompey in his place instead
had common interest with Pompey, b/c both want to keep army, more aspire to gain as reward, formed
a pact, demanded that they both be made consul, continue to be in field, paid for by state ultimately
granted by state w/ regret after 1 year, reassigned each one given very junior portfolio literal slap
in face took it as insult
-Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.)
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Document Summary

Pietas became cornerstone, another foundation stone was mos(mores) majorium convention". Entrenched popular will, lowest runs had ability to vote. Roman republic developed remarkably, ethos(mind-set pitas) set them apart (if one did good for community, not just self- . Not allowing certain outbursts, continuum, foundation was father should have ultimate authority --. maintained property, conservative (preserve), senate became institute of authority, did not have power enough was made decisions (difficult to go against that) strong social epochs. Because of these cornerstones able to have many wars of conquest, constant, seems endless battles, controlling north and south (favored by carthaginians) rome crossed line (sicily) their territory punic wars. When third completed, rome was master, controlled carthaginians, portugal, africa, became imperial power(not emperor, empire. Problems: people who worked land forced off land, migrated to cities. Other problem: stayed cities as mobs, lived of gratuity of state, affinity for state decrease- no attachment.

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