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Lecture

Roman Society.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 110
Professor
Sebastian Siebel- Achenbach
Semester
Fall

Description
WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3 , 2012 -entrenched popular will, lowest runs had ability to vote -roman republic developed remarkably, ethos(mind-set – pitas) set them apart (if one did good for community, not just self-¸ -pietas became cornerstone, another foundation stone was Mos(mores) majorium ‘ convention’ Roman Society -Mos (mores) maiorum – ‘convention’ -not allowing certain outbursts, continuum, foundation was father should have ultimate authority --.maintained property, conservative (preserve), senate became institute of authority, did not have power enough was made decisions (difficult to go against that) strong social epochs = main difference b/w Greek- community -because of these cornerstones able to have many wars of conquest, constant, seems endless battles, controlling north and south (favored by Carthaginians)  Rome crossed line (Sicily) – their territory – Punic Wars -Second major -when third completed, Rome was master, controlled Carthaginians, Portugal, Africa, became imperial power(not emperor, empire -Rome acquired huge amounts of gold, became a wash with money (politics + money = corruption) all that more enticing the become in legal system, money could sway popular opinion by bribery (more food for romans (free from states), circuses being entertained (spectacles – evolve into gladiators) -money also used to set certain people apart from others, allowed people to buy certain status- usually meant something Greek – educated in Greek arts of rhetoric – sophisticated as well as persuasive, philosophy, composer, writer, poet  set you apart -also got you trinkets set you apart- buy land, togas, horses – people with money bought more and more land (Punic vs Carthaginians) small pop gaining more -problems: people who worked land forced off land, migrated to cities (Rome)  by Augustus had ¾ of a million people, = created huge ‘Latifundia’ -Lucius Sergius Catilina -Latifundia – ‘broad fields’ or great estates -large estates controlled by: -Nobiles – aristocrats -used slaves as laborers, could number in1000/100s in south and Sicily, allowed owners live different lifestyle than common Romans, problem with concentration in property was Roman army (dependent on peasants, little land to be backbone (number of army shrink) got conquered people to join army-integrate non-Romans but still deficit – meant army not as strong -other problem: stayed cities as mobs, lived of gratuity of state, affinity for state decrease- no attachment st -polarized society by end of 1 century – elite w/ money, Greek/Hellinistic ideals, saw themselves as different, openly displayed it vs. common people who were displaced -Tiberius (163-133 B.C.) and Gaius (153-121 B.C.) Gracchi -two brother reformers  recognized problems of Roman society, set to transform so can stand another century by itself, first republican, first ran as a tribune (134BC – successful, platform was to WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3 , 2012 reform society- argued redistribution of land to those who had roots in country (recently displaced) knew majority of senators would be opposed (b/c fearful, their land) Tiberius recognized not succeed, went directly to people, called assembly of people – redistribute at state’s expense  into irrigable land – made some missteps, in end 133BC assassinated by a senator -brother Gaius 10 years later – definitional change in citizens –overwhelm conservative, elite – recognized danger, vetoed, assassinated -didn’t get very far, but left mark, other were to recognize dangers of Rome, and wanted to change it -generation later invasions by Celts, Germanic tribes – highly successful, set off panic by senators – caused havoc in states -Optimates – favouring Senate -old men, who had means, many senators bought seat, or leisure to speak well to -Populares – favouring people -lessening of differential -Marius (c. 155-86 B.C.) -general placed to overcome chaos of Celts, Germanic – successful b/c increases army by less than qualification, gains appreciation, beaten off by 101BC, but he sees changes needed to be taken place, realized what soldiers, and veterans want was land -as reward of showing pitas, demands land distribution – senate refuses -forced to flee – Cartage -returns to Rome, forms conspiracy, b/c no army, releases reign of terror, sought out and executed (senates and magistrates) while Sulla is off -Sulla returns and roots off, kills them as much as possible, as reward himself he declares himself as dictator allowed under Roman law ‘emergency member’ only for 6 months – relinquished control instead he stayed on, continued, at head of army, no one tried to stop, senate only had authority ‘convention’ precedent’ no army – constantly challenge -relinquished power after 3 years – resigned with some degree of honor -precedent had been sent, military had tasted power, dictate how empire would run/function -Cornelius Sulla (c. 138-78 B.C.) - head another army to beat off another group in Asia Minor – an ambitious King to untie everyone and Greek to go against Rome -ordered Sulla to go against, completed the job, got rid of pirates, Mithadatrus -First Triumvirate: -Gnaeus Pompeisus (Pompey, 106-48 B.C.) -general, instructed by senate go after people first in Italy, -wanted to continue, not stop, gave ultimatum in Spain that he should leave army, with troops close to Rome granted him this opportunity – success – desire made into console - young 33yrs – had not gotten up, senate hesitated, saw another Roman Army not far away from : -Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115-53 B.C.) -defeated last slave army 71BC – asked if he would put Pompey in his place – instead had common interest with Pompey, b/c both want to keep army, more aspire to gain as reward, formed a pact, demanded that they both be made consul, continue to be in field, paid for by state – ultimately granted by state w/ regret – after 1 year, reassigned – each one given very junior portfolio – literal slap in face – took it as insult -Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 3 , 2012 - Joined – first group 3 leaders – triumvirate – divided up empire into 3 sections (Marcus – Syria, east Mediterranean Caesar – north, Gaul( south France) , Pompey –Spain) – generals w/ own agenda, had ambitions -most successful Julius Caesar, took up position in south. France and attempted conquer all, extremely effective in doing that, -got as far as Rhine river -Marcus defeated by Parthians – out of picture -both left not inclined to challenge each other, stakes so high, loser unlikely to survive -in end b/c of Pompey’s wealth grew to appreciate senate, maintained status quo – showed republican – made common cause w/ them show remain republic as it was, made senate see armies should be disbanded to thereby neutralize Caesar
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