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L5 - Greek Cultural Achievement.docx

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University of Waterloo
HIST 110
David Schweitzer

A History of the Western World I Lecture 5: Greek Cultural Achievement The Pre-Socratics: The Problem of Cosmology  Cosmology: Study of the cosmos o From animism to polytheism  Philosophers: Lovers of Knowledge o Pre-Socratics lived before Socrates The Milesians - Thales of Miletus (ca. 621-548 B.C.E.) o "All is Water" - Anaximander (ca. 611-546 B.C.E.) o World made of substance called apeiron (“unlimited”) - Anaximenes (d. 525 B.C.E.) o The primary substance = air The Pythagoreans - Pythagoras (ca. 580-507 B.C.E.) o Metaphysics: “Beyond Things” o Significance of numbers in objective world - Parmenides (ca. 5 15-450 B.C.E.) o Three-part verse composition titled On Nature o Concept of Being: “all is one” - Heraclitus (ca. 500 B.C.E.) o Complained people did not comprehend the logos (Greek: ‘reason’) o Opposites were connected - Empedocles (ca. 495-430 B.C.E.) o 4 primary elements: earth, water, air, and fire o Love & Hate combined or separated 4 primary elements - Leucippus (ca. 450 B.C.E.) o Nature was empty space and atoms - Democritus (ca. 460-370 B.C.E.) o Systematized Leucippus’ theories The age of Socrates: From Cosmology to Ethics - The Sophists (‘those who were wise’) o Protagoras (c. 485–c. 410 BC): “Man is the measure of all things.” - Socrates (ca. 469-399 B.C.E.) o Attacked the Sophists o Continuous process of questioning (dialectics) o Convicted of corrupting youth and religious offenses o Sentenced to death: died by poisoning The age of Socrates: Plato (ca. 429-347 B.C.E.) - Developed Socrates' philosophy into ethical system - Founded the Academy in Athens (c. 387) - Aristotle was his most able student - Theory of Ideas or Forms o Higher order behind apparent flux of external events - Dialogues: the Republic (concept of ideal state) o People had Reason, Spirit, Appetite o 3 polis classes: philosophers (reason), warriors (spirit), middle class (appetite) Aristotle (ca. 384-322 B.C.E.) - Studied at Academy under Plato - 4 factors shd be considered in treating any obje
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