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L7 - The ROMAN Republic.docx

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HIST 110
David Schweitzer

Oct 9 th The ROMAN Republic Geography - Alps in North, 500 km length, 200km width The Early Italians - 2500 B.C.E Neolithic Revolution - 1500 B.C.E. Bronze Age - 1000 B.C.E. Iron Age o Italians: Umbrians, Sabines, Sammites, Latins occupy highland pastures o 900 B.C.E. immigration of Etruscans o 750-550 Greek colonies in Lower Italy & Sicily Founding of Rome - 7 hills, 24 km from the meeting of Tigris River and the Sea - Had different attitude toward citizenship then Greeks - Roman rule Etruscans and Greeks - 800 - 500 B.C.E. the Greeks est. colonies - 800 B.C.E. Etruscans settled between Arno & Tiber Rivers (now Tuscany) - Etruscans have influence on Romans Creation of the Roman Republic - 509 B.C.E. Romans expelled the Etruscans - monarchy = overthrown by popular uprising - Aristocratically based Republic established, republican government well known for Power Structure Roman Law 450C.E. Law of the Twelve Tablets – Basis of Human Law - Legal procedure, debt foreclosure, paternal authority over children, property rights, inheritance, funerary regulations, and various major and minor offences Rome's Expansion (509-44 B.C.E.) 264: 5 major powers in ancient world: (diplomatic skill or force of war) Seleucid Dynasty in Near East, Ptolemy’s in Egypt and Palestine, Kingdom of Macedonia, Carthage, Rome Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.E.) First Punic War (264-241 B.C.E.) - Carthage tried to dominate eastern Sicilian cities of Messana and Syracuse - Rome allied with Sicilians - Roman victory in 241: imposed lenient treaty o Carthage abandoned Sicily o paid war reparations • Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.E.) - 238, Rome seized Sardinia, Demand more reparations - Carthage expanded influence into Spain Oct 9th - 218 Romans sent ultimatum to Hannibal (leader of Punic forces in Spain) o Demanded Hannibal acknowledge Rome's interest in Spain o Rome controlled the seas & Hannibal attacked Rome via overland route o Hannibal led army of 26,000 troops & 60 elephants across Alps into Italy  rallied 15,000 more soldiers  The Republic barely escaped defeat - 212: Publicus Scipio (ca. 237-183 B.C.E.) was given proconsular status in Spain - Victory in Battle of Zama (202 B.C.E.) Carthage's surrender in 201 B.C.E. - Rome got o control of Spain & western Mediterranean o Carthage = minor state now Third Punic War (149 - 1
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