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L8 - Rise and Fall of Roman Empire.docx

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HIST 110
David Schweitzer

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Rise and Fall of Roman Empire • End of the Republic • 44 B.C.E., Caesar's assassination left political vacuum • 2 Triumvirate (Anthony, Octavian, Lepidus) – partition of the Empire • Lepidus (Africa), Anthony (Egypt & East), Octavian (Rome & West) Struggle for Rome (42-31 B.C.E.) - Lepidus lost position - Octavian’s defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra  both commit suicide at Alexandria - Octavian's Governmental Reforms  title of "princeps" (first citizen)  Senate gave him confidence & and a new title, "Augustus" The Principate of Augustus (31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) - Administration (tries to make an image of a good leader)  new coinage, police & fire protection, tax collection, resettlement of excess population  purged Senate took most functions of assemblies, fixed at 600  Removed those he did not want in senate  Augustus controlled elections & administration - Pax Romana (27 B.C.E.-180 C.E.) (a period of peace, wealth and stable government) The Roman Empire, 14 C.E. Julio-Claudian Dynasty (14-60 C.E.)  (indirect line/relationship with Augustus)  (he designated his heirs) (republic should not have set rulers) - descended from Augustus or wife, Livia - Tiberius (14-37 C.E.)  Is always injured, was considered to die soon, recovered, to save face, kill him for next heir - Gaius (Caligula, 37-41 C.E.) - Claudius (41-54 C.E.)  Uncle of Gaius, had been shunned - Nero (54-68 C.E.)  committed suicide in 68 C.E Flavian dynasty - Vespasian (69-79 C.E.) - Titus (79-81 C.E.) - Domitian (81-96 C.E.)  assassinated by Nerva The Five Good Emperors, 96-180 C.E. - Nerva (r. 96-98 C.E.) Dies early - Trajan (98-117 C.E.) - Hadrian (117-138 C.E.) Builds Hadrian’s wall, saves part of England from barbarians - Antoninus Pius (138-161 C.E.) - Marcus Aurelius ( 161 - 180 C.E.) Government and Society under the Pax Romana - 14 - 180 C.E. Rome flourished  concealed total control by emperors  (home + provinces) makes it seem as though it’s a republic governed by a senate, not fixed government  emperors virtually deified  Imperial policy tried to unify empire  Roman citizenship was spread more widely,  lots of people in different areas were given roman citizenships  empire became ‘Romanized’  urban centres given rights & status of Roman municipalities  exception of Jewish rebellions Jews soon became scattered, you were allowed to worship your own gods, but you had to recognize roman gods, Jews did not.  Efficiency of bureaucracy Society under Pax Romana - Problems  urban life at expense of rural farmers  taxes, high rents, mandatory gifts, military service  chronic labour shortage  few new slaves  large estates dominated agriculture  Lower classes became tenant farmers (coloni) which replaced slaves as basis of agricultural labour  Sharecroppers paying rent in labour
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