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Lecture

L15 - European Early and High Middle Ages.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 110
Professor
David Schweitzer
Semester
Fall

Description
European Early and High Middle Ages Kingdom of the Franks - Clovis (482-511 C.E.) king of Franks o Pushed Romans out of Gaul o 493, married Clothile (Christian) o 496, converted to Christianity o established Merovingian dynasty (ancestral name) Frankish ‘Do-Nothing’ Kings - succeeding Frankish Merovingian line known as the ‘Do-Nothing’ kings o Mayors of the Palace governed the Franks o 732 one Mayor, Charles Martel (‘the Hammer’) defeated Muslim warriors at Poitiers - Pepin (the Short) 751-768 o Persuaded7 Pope Zachary to depose Merovingian monarch and crown him as king of Franks o rewarded for supporting missionary efforts Charles the Great (Charlemagne) Succeeded Pepin as King Charles (768-814) - Carolingian dynasty ruled for next 200 years - victories against enemies of Pope made him o king of both Franks and Lombards (774) o victor over Muslims in northern Spain (795) o After long war (772-804) defeated Saxons & won their conversion to Christianity o punished rebellious Roman nobles for Pope Leo III - 800 Christmas Day, Leo III crowned Charles as Holy Roman Emperor (Augustus) leader of Catholics The Carolingian Empire - Charlemagne's objective is re-establishment of Roman Empire in the West o Court at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) controlled 200 counts throughout empire o Schools established to provide supply of educated administrators Dividing the Empire Charlemagne succeeded by Louis the Pious, (814-840) - 840, Louis's death sparked civil war between his 3 sons o Louis the German, Charles the Bald, Lothair - 841 Lothair defeated o Oath of Strasbourg, 842 - 842 the Treaty of Verdun created 3 kingdoms - 870 lands merged after Lothair’s death th th Europe: 9 - 10 centuries Economic Life In The Early Middle Ages - Decline of Cities o roads fell into disrepair, barter economy replaced Roman money economy o towns lost political & economic importance o decline in trade led to subsistence agriculture from Roman field grazing system Manorialism and Feudalism - Manorialism: a system of economic organization (land owner) (Economic) o former Roman large estates & public lands became king’s property  King awarded others those estates for service or loyalty  They in turn provided land to labourers for food - Feudalism: system personal relationships between lords and vassals (political) o personal ties & obligations binding vassals to their lords The Rise of the Papacy Church was only institution surviving Germanic invasions intact - 375 Pope Damasus I claimed he held supreme teaching authority in Christendom o based claim on Petrine Doctrine - Gregory I (590-640)
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