Alps in north, 500 km length, 200km width. Iron age: italians: umbrians, sabines, sammites, latins occupy highland pastures, 900 b. c. e. immigration of etruscans, 750-550 greek colonies in lower italy & sicily. 7 hills, 24 km from the meeting of tigris river and the sea. Had different attitude toward citizenship then greeks. 800 - 500 b. c. e. the greeks est. colonies. Etruscans settled between arno & tiber rivers (now tuscany) Aristocratically based republic established, republican government well known for. Legal procedure, debt foreclosure, paternal authority over children, property rights, inheritance, funerary regulations, and various major and minor offences s basis of human law. Seleucid dynasty in near east, ptolemy"s in egypt and palestine, kingdom of macedonia, Carthage, rome ( 509-44 b. c. e. ) (diplomatic skill or force of war) tried to dominate eastern sicilian cities of messana and syracuse (264-146 b. c. e. Roman victory in 241: imposed lenient treaty: carthage abandoned sicily, paid war reparations.