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Reform and War in Eastern Europe

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University of Waterloo
HIST 111
Wai Man Ng

18 Century Reform and War in Eastern Europe Themes - This is the age of the formation of militaristic, bureaucratic police states - It is also the age of “Enlightened Absolutists” Enlightened Despots’ vs Absolutists 1. Not divine right monarchists 2. Secular a. Religious Toleration b. Jesuits i. Banned in nearly all countries ii. Pope disbands them in 1778 iii. Revived in 1814 3. Rational Reformers a. Rule by reason b. Style c. Abrupt d. Use reason to benefit all subjects and kingdom 4. Changing notion of “state” a. From private property of the King b. To Abstract authority – King as executive 5. Enlightened despots rise aided by the wars of the 1700s - Centralization in the capital (18 /19 century) militarized police states in the east. Intro: The Domination of the French Model - Language o “Lingua Franca” o Refined - Fashion and manners The failures of France’s Model 1. Louis XV 1710-1774 a. Indifferent about ruling. Interests are women/hunting. b. 2. Major problem was Taxation a. Taille – land tax i. Clergy, Nobility Exempt ii. Peasants not b. Parlements blacked any new taxes – unable to pay for things. 3. 1726-1743 Cardinal Fleury a. Ruled as first minister b. Kept country out of war c. Relatively successful 4. 1768 – 1774 Chancellor Maupeou a. Closed all parlements b. Limited power of judges c. Tried to make application of the law more uniform d. Criticised for being a tyrant 5. Louis XVI comes to power a. Restored the old parlements i. Appointed Turgot to a ministry of reform ii. Suppressed the guilds iii. Replaced the corvee (labour tax for working on roads) iv. Turgot resigns. 6. End Result – the king lacks a head a. 1778 France and England are at War b. 1789 France is in revolution Prussia under the Hohenzollerns Frederick William (1713-1740) Founder of the Prussian military State - Discipli
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