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Lecture 6

HIST113 Lecture 6: Lecture 6. Farming and Resources Upper and Lower Canada. Sept 30 2014.docx

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Catherine Briggs

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HIST 113
Lecture 6
September 30 2014
Farming and Resources Upper and Lower Canada
Themes and Questions
1. Impact of Merchants on Business Development in the Colonies.
2. Importance of Agricultural Sector on Business Development.
3. Impact of British and US policies on Business.
4. Nature and operation of major business areas of the economy.
Ontario and Quebec after 1760
Upper Canada: Ontario
Lower Canada: Quebec
oSwitched to Canada west and Canada east at one point
Brief History: Quebec – lower Canada
1760 (surrender of the French) – 1870 (when Canada becomes a nation)
Most of the major business leaders within the colony of New France left the
colony (returned to France or joined different colonies)
oBecause they are displaced from business (cant trade with the British
The average French Canadian remained in the colony after 1763 (under British
oCan continue to run their businesses as farmers, and craftsmen
As a result there is a period of stability that allows the farmers to prosper and
further develop their farms
oRise in French Canadian population
oBy 1760 the colony or New France only had 60,000 people, within 50
years it raised to 229,000 (from people having children not immigration)
oThis lack of warfare helped the agricultural sector to prosper
oWhen people feel more secure, they have children who become farmers,
new areas of land are opened up (75% of population in Quebec are rural
and agricultural)
Quebec sees a growth in the timber industry
Brief History: Ontario (Upper Canada)
Formed as a result of the American Revolution
A flood of refugees from the U.S. who left because they want to stay within the
British empire
oA lot are merchants who want to be part of the empire so they can do
business within the empire (referred to as loyalists- loyal to the British

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The British are facing a problem as 75,000 refugees flood from the 13 colonies
and into British controlled areas like Nova Scotia and Quebec
oThe ones in Québec are a problem because the British recognize that the
un-going tension between the British and the French will translate into a
problem if these refugees (protestant) are settled beside a French roman
Catholic population
oHad promised them various kinds of compensation for their loyalty (for
being loyal to the crown)
BNA (British North America) Colonies 1823
Open up the area next to the Ottawa river, and moving towards lake Ontario for
the loyalists
oChange it from fur trading country to agriculture settlement for the
Starting in 1815 there is a massive wave of immigration from Britain (Ireland,
Scotland, England and Wales)
oNumber of reasons for leaving
oLeads to a massive wave of immigration from 1815-1860
oA lot of them go to the new colony of Ontario because it has good
agricultural land (average people farm)
Leads to a quick development and growth of Ontario’s economic base
The population of Ontario grows very quickly 6-10,000 in 1783, by 1811 its
60,000 1870 its 1.9 million
Merchant Economy
Economy based on the trade of its major resource products
Merchants dominate a trade economy
Displacing the French opened up a place for those that perceived the opportunity
Large British military presence in Québec (starting 1760)
Once the American revolution occurs they continue to station troops in Québec
because there is the possibility that America will attack
George Allsopp
oHad the connections to become a successful merchant + perception of
oWorked in the quarter masters general department (the purchasing and
supply department for the British military)
oOnce he is released from the military he establishes himself with a British
trading firm
oOne of the employees is also a former employee of the supply department
which created a bond (allowing him to connect himself to the firm)
oHe becomes their representative and stations himself in Québec
Robert Hamilton and Richard Cartwright
oRobert grew up in Scotland where it was arranged that he would be a
junior clerk for a fur trading firm
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