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Russian Revolution.docx

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HIST 191
Julia Roberts

HIST 191 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: 25 October, 7 November 1917 MONDAY NOV. 5TH th Russia at beginning of 20 century: country with backward economy and archaic political system  Russian as autocracy system: absolute monarchy  Czar was sole source of laws  The Czar, the ruler, supposed to have strong personality to rule  Last Czar Nicolas II (1894-1917): weakest of all 3 centuries  Police state: no constitution (freedom of speech/press), parliament, civil liberties or political parties  Below Czar was aristocracy o More rights than everyone else  Middle class kept away from political power by Czar and aristocracy  80% of population are peasants o Victims of unequal land distribution  Factory workers o no labor legislation o had to accept conditions of factory owners o Trade unions/strikes outlawed o 12 hour work days with Sunday off  Industrialization (1890-1914) o most workers are former peasants: unskilled and poorly paid o industrial growth in Russia was rapid, highest rate in world o in short run: industrialization provoked social stress o workers vulnerable to extremist propaganda  ethnic groups treated unequally o written in law o discrimination caused social stress o Slavic/orthodox religion o Jews experienced worse discrimination  One language: Russia o Used in education, courts, politics  Intelligentsia o Poor opportunities for upward social mobility o Most Russian intellects were liberals  Liberals were radical  Small proportion was evolutionists, wanted to abolish system  Program of the oppositionth st o 3 revolutions in 20 centuries: 1 in 1905, 2 in 1917 o Goals of all opposition parties  Termination of the autocracy  The power should pass to a parliament elected by universal and equal vote  Basic civil liberties  8 hour work days for workers  Alienation of crown’s and landlords’ lands and their distribution among peasants The Bolshevik (Communist Party)  1903 founded by Vladminir Lenin: very smart person  Social party eventually took power in Russia:  Blolshevik and Communist same thing The Revolution in 1905  Peasants uprising HIST 191 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: 25 October, 7 November 1917 MONDAY NOV. 5TH  Spontaneous outbreak of violence  Started to burn states of land lords and distribute land among themselves  Causes: increasing social tensions and economic slump  Slumps produced series of strikes  Governments sent armies to those in strikes  Socialist parties played minor role in evolution  Tsar’s Manifesto (October 5)  A limited constitution granting basic civil liberties  Legalized political parties and trade unions  A temporary relaxation of tension Russia in World War I  Allied with France + Britain against Central Powers  Heavy casualties  Collapse of economy under strain of war  Shortage of food provoked worker riots  Monarchy lost support of most of public during war Grigorri Rasputin  Siberian peasant, barely literate  Claimed had power to cure Tsar’s only son (heir to throne) from disease (hem
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