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Hist 191 Special Topics History; Crusades.pdf

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HIST 191
Julia Roberts

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Wed. Sept. 14: Professor Steven Bednarski: 27 November 1095: "'God Wills It!' The Origins of the Crusades, Holy War, and the so-called 'Clash of Civilizations'" How the Battle Cry of the Crusades Shook the World: We’ve heard a lot in the last 10 years about crusades.Am politicians and other unwisely invoke the term crusade or holy war in order to justify war efforts in the Middle East. People often do it incorrectly. Crusading is something fundamentally medieval. On NOv 27th 1095 - Pop urban II announced the first crusade he shook the world. Began to preach the first crusade in order to reclaim the holy land from the Turks. Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Jordan. One way his speech shook the world is that it began 100s of years of Christian Crusades - Spain, South of France, and elsewhere. The image of the crusade today is linked to war in the mid east, it happened over and over again. II. on a spectacular day in 1095 P. UII gave his speech.As a young man he became a monk at Clooney. He became interested in reforming the lax christian tendencies. He was elected pope.As the turks conquered the Muslims, they took on the their religion. The strong turkish army posed a threat to Byzantine Emp. In 1071 the conquered the Byzantine empire. The mostly christian Byz. Emp entered into the hands of the Muslim Turks. The defeat at Manzikert led to a brief struggle. Emperor sends out the cry for help to European Christians. Pope Urban is the one that enters the crowd. He takes it upon himself and makes a papal call for assistance to Christians in the EAST. Byz. Empire wanted soldiers, Pope wanted a political victory. Neither man gets exactly what they want. Immediately peasants answered the call and were slaughtered by the professional Turkish army. In 1096 the French Nobility begins organizing for war answering the call of Pope Urban. They arrive in the MId East in the middle of a power vacuum. The were in the right place at the right time and their presence cause the divided enemy to crumble. They take Jerusalem in 1099. The set out for the first time 4 crusader states: The Crusader States of Outremer. The land across the sea. Urban couldn’t have known that his first crusade was launching the first european colonization experiment. 1000’s of white europeans travel to the middle east. They develop a hybrid culture. The land is different from Europe but connected to it. When Euro’s finally are able to cross theAtlantic, the explorers are using the diaries of the crusaders. To understand the way that these explorers treated the natives, you have to look at the crusades. The first prominent muslim leader was Zengi, he attacked and destroyed the first Crusader State of Odessa. In Europe, they decide to launch the Second Crusade led by Kings. It fails, utter humiliation for Europeans. Zengi’s predecessors continue to chip away at Crusader States. Salah ed-Din captures Jerusalem entirely except for Tyre. Tyre sends the distress call to Europe. Europe launches the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lion Heart,August Philip of France, and Barborosa. The Third Crusade fails to take Jerusalem. Innocent the Third becomes Pope and the first thing he does is launch the 4th crusade. His general is prevented from joining the army on its way to Constantinople, and Christian soldiers sack and pillage the Christian city of Constantinople. By 1291 Muslim soldiers were well equip to repel Christian soldiers and the Holy War was lost forever. II. a. Just War Crusading is rooted in ancient religion predating Christianity, Judaism, suggesting that there are 10 rules to live by, the sixth being Thou Shalt Not Kill. This has been a problem for Ancient Christians.Augustine of Hippo pondered this rule. He has two books : Confessions, and City of God. He suggests that the world is messed up because people have a capacity for evil and all good people will be punished. In the City of God there are very unique circumstances under which violence is acceptable: 1. Achristian soldier has to have just cause. 2. Violence has to be sanctioned by a higher political power 3. Asoldier has to be of right intentions. He must accomplish his goals
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