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Lecture

HIST191 Special Topics in History Slithering Over The Brink - Origins of the Great War.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 191
Professor
Julia Roberts
Semester
Fall

Description
August 4th, 1914 - Slithering Over The Brink - Origins of the Great War - horrendously complicated issue that has had 100’s of books written about it - August 4th - starts the great war - 3 monarchies that have lasted for centuries were dismantled - Russia becomes the USSR - so much changed in regards to europe and the world and so much controversy seemed to start - how could a war be so costly and yet be so difficult to pin. - Some how the war just happened - slithered over the brink - no one good understand how the war just happened - Just as soon as the war was over people tried to consider why it happened, who was responsible, the great powers, Versailles. - June 1919 - the Treaties of Versailles are written, and are imposed - Clause 232 - The War Guilt Clause - simply says that Germany and it’s allies are responsible for the war - causes an enormous amount of reaction - 1919 - the verdict of Versailles was imposed on Germany - powerful tool in understanding the reaction of the people in Germany, - The degree in which the war guilt clause and the feeling of portrayal in Germany led to Second World War - In the 20’s and 30’s many people begin to challenge the War Guilt Clause - A set of other things come out in trying to understand how/why the Great War happened? - - Nationalism - - Victoria -1901 - Kaiser Wilhelm II - cousin - - Imperialism - Colonialism - the sense particularly that “the sun never sets on the british empire” - System of Alliances - - Entente - Britain, France, Russia - Alliance - Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary - Militarism - arms race - the degree at which these countries are building weapons - building factories of munitions - Dreadnaught - big new class of british battleship that seems to prompt in some eyes an escalation - compared to German navy - British German Naval Race - much to do with competition between these two imperial powers - Military Planning - alternative notions that emerge after the first world war that respond to the german reactions - Gr.10 history - all of the Ism’s - HG Wells - slithered over the brink - Ypres, Belgium - belief that wars just happen - Assassination - June 28th - 1914 - Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand - Gavrillo Princip - Black Hand - Some people argue that this is the spark in the European hotbed of tension, - belief that wars just happen - Wrong. - The degree at which Historians like to know what certain things happened at certain times - The debate of the origins of the war fall on Long term versus Short term. - Nationalism - what two sides didn’t like each other: France and Germany - had a war in 1870’s - germany won - mot people would have said that if there was a war France and Germany probably wouldn’t be on the same side - the idea of being a French citizen is new in Europe - The sense of being German is being created - - Nationalism develops over disputed lands - 1870-1914 - 44 years without a major war - post war period - Europe was unstable - 44 years is a long time for europe to be without fighting - the argument that Nationalism becomes grounds for war is one that needs review... - Austro Hungarian empire - included many different nationalities - Serbia, a strong nationalist state, is not particularly happy about being controlled by Vienna - the Black Hand - trying to insight revolt in those annexed states within the AH empire - Imperialism - Karl Marx - created communism - an alternative model of historical development - in effect the ideas of Marx have suddenly become no longer abstract notions. They are embodied in Lenin, Stalin. In part they spawn a new idea about war. - Cooperation had in many ways - developed in spite of Imperial ideas. - Biggest Imperial powers - France and Britain - had decided a long time before the war, that they would fight on the same side. - Woodrow Wilson - believed this was a system that needed to be overhauled - Alliance System ▯ - Italy switches side - shows that the idea that Europe was straightjacketed by these alliances was not necessarily true - Italy decided, and was able to switch sides. - the argument is that these alliance forced each major player to behave in a certain way. - Militarism - the sense that masculine egos could not be forced to stand down - emphasis on military values - the rise in Europe of things that tie in to Social Darwinism - using competition between species to explain competition between nations - Militarism was everywhere in Europe - Generals were becoming more and more learned - Opening universities for the study of War - the Prussian ones were the best - Military Planning** - each country in europe had a mobilization plan - in the German case - one might argue “The Schlieffen Plan” - Germany was surrounded - major problem - war on two fronts - Schlieffen suggested that in order to avoid a war on two fronts they would have to invade France through Belgium - and then mobilize your
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