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HIST 191 Special Topics in History; The Scramble for Africa.pdf

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HIST 191
Julia Roberts

The Scramble for Africa Thesis: - Scramble for Africa signified shift to formal imperialism Motive: - ideology - Tools of Empire - Industrialization - Nationalism - Exploration Congress of Berlin The Scramble - East Africa - Cape to Cairo - West & Central Africa - King Leopold’s Congo - North Africa - New Imperialism - What this was - How was it new? - How was different from earlier examples of cross cultural connection. Motivations - empire building/european - in 1880 less than 5% of Africa is controlled by foreign powers - in the 20th century - 95% of Africa is controlled by European overseers The Scramble for Africa Late 19th Early 20th century - early form of globalization - global interconnectivity - the world was shrinking - helps to account for the Scramble for Africa 1880 - 10% of Africa under European control 1914 - only Abyssinia + Liberia still independent - European motivations for Imperialism Industrial Revolution - Source for Raw Materials - Markets for finished good - Both important European motivations for Imperialism - before late 19th century - euro economy - dependent on natural power - 19th century - coal, steam, electricity, - neither of these found in Africa - explanation of imperialism. - Second Stage of Industrialization - electricity/chemical - The prime cause for globalization, imperialize - communication over vast distance - steam ships - industrial weaponization - europeans enjoy an arms gap - transportation improvements - innovation and creation - these things allow europeans to project their presence much more globally than ever before. Innovation helped to defeat the tyranny of distance. The Scramble for Africa - European Nationalism - fusion of a nation with a state. - culture, language, history, - with a state - oversea expansion - part of national identity - more nation states coming into conflict with eachother - before the 18th/19th century - we had germans in a cultural sense but no state to associate them with. Germany as a nation is new. - Italy - culturally - Garibaldi, italian nationalists. - Missionary Activity - individual actors in the expansion of European imperialism - what missionaries all shared was that the word of christ should be given to all members of all societies - one of their ideal markets for doing so... was Africa - here we see the most long term European missionary work . - Christianity is not new - in the 19th century especially in britain - there was a particular type of Christianity - Evangelical Christians - Most missionaries were Evangelical Christians - they believed salvation was not their own personal benefit - it was for all. - Military & Naval Bases - conflict, and conflict abroad is not new in european history - 1405 - portuguese sacking of Morocco is the first real example of overseas european expansion. - 1415 - Tamer Lane dies in the north of modern day Iran - marks the end of the many centuries long Mongol empire - Seismic shift in terms of Global History - European society in the 15th century was on the periphery - the 15th century signifies a period of history that we may still be in, one dominated by Europe/The West - in the late 19th century there were all types of warfare/ european conflict abroad The Scramble for Africa - ones sparked by different european powers there conflicts which were themselves domestic, were carried out abroad - Places to Dump Unwanted/Excess Populations - industrialization and urbanization saw - creation of slums - making of bigger cities - there is no public funding of welfare - many many people had no options between jobs - they’re troublesome/moral threats - Empire Building provided an option for dealing with unwanted or criminal citizens. - the development of Australia - Also saw immense opportunity - stratified societies - rampant inequality - the idea of upward possibilities regardless of where you were born simply did not exist in european countries - Empire saw the opportunity for people to live a much better life abroad than the ever could at home. - Humanitarian Reasons - humanitarianism was closely linked to these other motivations - in order to create these imperial expansion you had to really believe you were doing some good, something beneficial to your national - the spreading in Empire itself was based on the idea of progress - Civilization - imperialism was not yet politically incorrect The Scramble for Africa
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