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Lecture 2

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University of Waterloo
HIST 205
David Schweitzer

Lecture 2 – Emergence of Modern Sports Pre-Modern and Modern Sports  Some characteristics of modern sports o Equality (equal rules for all participants) o Bureaucratization (organizational control) o Specialization (specific positions and roles played) o Rationalization (rules and training for skills) o Quantification (an emphasis on measuring by numbers) o Recordkeeping (with a view to continual improvement) o Publicity and public announcement (attracting spectators) The Industrial Revolution  Demographic shift from rural to urban places o In 1775, 3% of the population lived in cities o Britain was the first nation to have 50% of the population to live in cities  Upper and middle classes had more money & more leisure time  Compact population that desired divergence & entertainment which opened way for the growth of sports Technology (e.g., the bicycle)  Vulcanization of rubber (1839)  Rationalization o They become better and mass produced and affordable to everyone. Organization & bureaucratic agencies Modern sports and the west  Modern sport is a Eurocentric (partly true)  Other peoples and nations adopted and adapted Western sports  Modern sport is no longer Eurocentric but global  Horse racing and scandals o 1814,  Epsom  derby  in  England,  “Running  Reign”  won  American plantation owners and horse racing  Horseracing was first national sporting spectacle in United States  Thoroughbred racing after Civil war (1861-1865)  Triple Crown of horseracing in the United Stats o Belmont and Westchester County, New York (1867), Preakness in Baltimore (1873), Kentucky Derby at Louisville (1875)  Cricket  National pastime of England – spread throughout British Empire  Golf  Developed in Scotland from the traditional game of Shinti (Celtic form of field hockey)  One time a game for money people o Scots  word  “colf: means a stick or club  1457, James II prohibited it (interfered with archery)  James IV of Scotland (became James I of England in 1603) & built a course of Black death  1754, Royal and Ancient Golf Club, St. Andrews, formed to set the rules.  1867, St. Andrews opened a ladies section  1910, c.1000 courses in Britain and popular in USA for people living in expensive commuter suburbs 
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