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Course lecture notes Notes from most of the course lectures. Professor does not post slides on ACE.

Course Code
Gary Bruce

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HIST 223
Jews in European History
-towns could bar Jews from living there in 1700’s
-had no legal rights
-if permitted in a town, had to live in ghettos
-in big cities, ghettos were walled
-ghettos had curfews
-became traders and bankers - not great jobs at the time
-Court Jews (Hofjuden) - very important in European history - helped run important
political/royal systems
The Enlightenment - turning point for Jews
-1750’s to 1800’s
-primarily out of France
-Jean Jacques Rousseau - Origins of the Inequality of Mankind
-men are born free and are equal in rights
-Voltaire - also argued all men are equal
-hated religion but believed in rationality
-Individual vs Social Group - Individual key to Enlightenment Thought
Salon of Mme. Geoffrin
-hosted by women
Moses Mendelssohn
-“Jewish Socrates”
-German Jew
-tried to integrate Jews into German society
Key Government Measures
-Austria-Hungary - Edict of Tolerance 1781
-France 1791 - full rights of citizenship granted to Jews
-could live anywhere they wanted, work as any profession, could intermarry
-French revolution exported Jewish rights abroad
Battle of Nations, Leipzig, 1813
Jewish Responses
-conversion to Christianity - about 1/6 in Germany
-assimilation - left Jewish faith, clubs, organizations, synagogues
-reform the religion - do away with aspects of the religion that sets them apart (eg
Kosher diet

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HIST 223
-Jews emancipated because 1)rationalism, and 2)fraternalism
-responses to emancipation divided the Jews of Europe
Anti-Semitism in German History
-hard to imagine without associating it with Hitler’s regime and the Shoah
-Martin Luther, 1543 - anti-Semitism
-1800’s Germany - 300+ ‘kingdoms’/principalities
-Napoleon rearranged, borders became vague
Johann Fichte
-Father of German nationalism
-Father of German anti-Semitism
-felt Jews could never be Germans, they were a state within a state
-did not want Jews to have rights
Friedrich Jahn - gymnastic clubs
-linked sporting events with nationalism
-established gymnastics clubs to foster sense of being German through gymnastics
-idea of Volk - connection to people as though by blood
Wilhelm Marr (1873) - the victory of Jewry over Germandom
-Jews a “tribe” apart; kept themselves pure
Adolf Stocker - Christian Social Workers’ Party
-anti-Semitism now political as well
Heinrich von Treitschke, writer - “The Jews are our misfortune” (Die Juden sind unser
Karl Lueger, Mayor of Vienna
-went on tirades about Jews, huge anti-Semite
-Hitler mimics Lueger later on
Anti-Semitism and Nationalism are linked
-Hitler had intellectual tradition of anti-Semitism to draw upon
Dreyfus Affair - 1890’s
-captain in French army, was Jewish
-sentenced to exile for spying for the Germans

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HIST 223
-Theodor Herzl followed trial as journalist, came to conclusion that Jews could not live
with others in Europe, the only solution was a Jewish state - this belief = Zionism
-Dreyfus later exonerated
-Outbreak of anti-Semitism in WWI
-accusations they were not fighting, which was not true
-rumours Jews were spying
-Daniel Goldhagen - uniqueness of German anti-Semitism
-“eliminationist anti-Semitism” - get rid of them permanently not just away from a
nation’s borders - Germans more violent
Pale of Settlement - Jews lived there
-life not pleasant there - long service in Russian army, lived agricultural existence,
occasional outburst of violence against Jews
Pogroms - rioting, murder, destruction of Jews, random and disorganized
Early Zionists
-Moses Hess - German socialist also came to the conclusion that Jews need homeland
-Leon Pinsker - Russian doctor
-Herzl - President of World Zionist Organization
Reasons for rejection of separate state of Israel by Jews
-assimilated - spoke language of where they were (In Western Europe, but spoke
Yiddish in Eastern Europe)
-heresy to establish Israel before the Messiah led the Jews there
-too ambitious
The Life and Times of Adolf Hitler
Eras in Hitler’s Life:
Childhood - 1889-1907
Vienna - 1907-1913
War - 1914-1918
Road to Power - 1919-1933
Dictator - 1933-1945
-believed he had a mission to save humanity
-very wealthy, money didn’t motivate him
-father changed name to Hitler before Adolf was born
-Hitler’s parents were second cousins
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