Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UW (20,000)
HIST (300)
HIST223 (10)
Lecture

Course lecture notes Notes from most of the course lectures. Professor does not post slides on ACE.


Department
History
Course Code
HIST223
Professor
Gary Bruce

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 21 pages of the document.
HIST 223
Jews in European History
-towns could bar Jews from living there in 1700’s
-had no legal rights
-if permitted in a town, had to live in ghettos
-in big cities, ghettos were walled
-ghettos had curfews
-became traders and bankers - not great jobs at the time
-Court Jews (Hofjuden) - very important in European history - helped run important
political/royal systems
The Enlightenment - turning point for Jews
-1750’s to 1800’s
-primarily out of France
-Jean Jacques Rousseau - Origins of the Inequality of Mankind
-men are born free and are equal in rights
-Voltaire - also argued all men are equal
-hated religion but believed in rationality
-Individual vs Social Group - Individual key to Enlightenment Thought
Salon of Mme. Geoffrin
-discussions
-hosted by women
Moses Mendelssohn
-“Jewish Socrates”
-German Jew
-tried to integrate Jews into German society
Key Government Measures
-Austria-Hungary - Edict of Tolerance 1781
-France 1791 - full rights of citizenship granted to Jews
-could live anywhere they wanted, work as any profession, could intermarry
-French revolution exported Jewish rights abroad
Battle of Nations, Leipzig, 1813
Jewish Responses
-conversion to Christianity - about 1/6 in Germany
-assimilation - left Jewish faith, clubs, organizations, synagogues
-reform the religion - do away with aspects of the religion that sets them apart (eg
Kosher diet
Conclusions

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

HIST 223
-Jews emancipated because 1)rationalism, and 2)fraternalism
-responses to emancipation divided the Jews of Europe
Anti-Semitism in German History
-hard to imagine without associating it with Hitler’s regime and the Shoah
-Martin Luther, 1543 - anti-Semitism
-1800’s Germany - 300+ ‘kingdoms’/principalities
-Napoleon rearranged, borders became vague
Johann Fichte
-Father of German nationalism
-Father of German anti-Semitism
-felt Jews could never be Germans, they were a state within a state
-did not want Jews to have rights
Friedrich Jahn - gymnastic clubs
-linked sporting events with nationalism
-established gymnastics clubs to foster sense of being German through gymnastics
competition
-idea of Volk - connection to people as though by blood
Wilhelm Marr (1873) - the victory of Jewry over Germandom
-Jews a “tribe” apart; kept themselves pure
Adolf Stocker - Christian Social Workers’ Party
-anti-Semitism now political as well
Heinrich von Treitschke, writer - “The Jews are our misfortune” (Die Juden sind unser
Ungluck)
Karl Lueger, Mayor of Vienna
-went on tirades about Jews, huge anti-Semite
-Hitler mimics Lueger later on
Anti-Semitism and Nationalism are linked
-Hitler had intellectual tradition of anti-Semitism to draw upon
Dreyfus Affair - 1890’s
-captain in French army, was Jewish
-sentenced to exile for spying for the Germans

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

HIST 223
-Theodor Herzl followed trial as journalist, came to conclusion that Jews could not live
with others in Europe, the only solution was a Jewish state - this belief = Zionism
-Dreyfus later exonerated
-Outbreak of anti-Semitism in WWI
-accusations they were not fighting, which was not true
-rumours Jews were spying
-Daniel Goldhagen - uniqueness of German anti-Semitism
-“eliminationist anti-Semitism” - get rid of them permanently not just away from a
nation’s borders - Germans more violent
Pale of Settlement - Jews lived there
-life not pleasant there - long service in Russian army, lived agricultural existence,
occasional outburst of violence against Jews
Pogroms - rioting, murder, destruction of Jews, random and disorganized
Early Zionists
-Moses Hess - German socialist also came to the conclusion that Jews need homeland
-Leon Pinsker - Russian doctor
-Herzl - President of World Zionist Organization
Reasons for rejection of separate state of Israel by Jews
-assimilated - spoke language of where they were (In Western Europe, but spoke
Yiddish in Eastern Europe)
-heresy to establish Israel before the Messiah led the Jews there
-too ambitious
The Life and Times of Adolf Hitler
Eras in Hitler’s Life:
Childhood - 1889-1907
Vienna - 1907-1913
War - 1914-1918
Road to Power - 1919-1933
Dictator - 1933-1945
-believed he had a mission to save humanity
-very wealthy, money didn’t motivate him
-father changed name to Hitler before Adolf was born
-Hitler’s parents were second cousins
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version