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University of Waterloo
HIST 243
Sebastian Siebel- Achenbach

History 243 thTuesday September 11 Social history and economic historyHow did all sectors of society evolved2025 years the study of historyEurope was where the greatest change took placeOutside of Europe had been out for centuriesSmall changes glacial pace except EuropeEurope society changed fundamentally Deference to authority you were born in order and there you remained cant escape birthborn from a king you are a prince 250 years later not a complete shift but a turning of orientationswe question authority now but unthinkable 250 years agowe want more and more now Vise versa beforehuge change but gradual change since 250 years ago4 revolutionseconomico most important but biased opinion o industrial revolution changed our production methodsincreasing output and surplus o altered social relationships on core odemographic scientific revolution state involvementThursday 13 SeptemberPREINDUSTRIAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY1750 BeforeYou would recognize everything if you are born17502012 hard to integrate because they wouldnt recognize the walls tables chairs etcurban dwellers middle class the bourgeoisiewhat is traditional society o Life for the average European 1750 o Changed for their ancestors Really different from what they knew 500 yrs ago95 of the people worked the land could be 9697more north and west primary industry lessenedFrance one of the most developed countriesPeople lived in villages 3000 people urban town10000cityvillage250450 peopleo people lived here because it offered security o prone to attack o self sufficient Autarkic o Produced enough to get back o Little incentive to produce more than what they need o They couldnt produce more because the market was too far away o Not integrated in a market structureo Lived 30km away from the market too farCriminals 10 were only caught o Caughtdeath sentence All rivers led to oceanso Eastern Europe o Ship transportationWorkdaydawn to dusk o No artificial lighting because it was expensiveo Malefield o Childrenherdssheppards o WomengardenAt home o Communal effort for special seasonsHigh sewing season etcNeed farmingmore women in fieldsHarvestingSickle to cut the grain o Left bottom for animals to feed on Scythe rarely usedThey can work 16 hours a day After 1 or 2 hours they would gossip or sing o Made work life tolerableFields were really long o Plowing was by animalOx cow horse humansHumans put in harnesses and pulled the plows before 1900s sometimes o Turning was an issue thats why they were really long and narrow1 seed gave 45 cropso now 1520o soil limited productivity o recognized that harvesting the same fieldyields diminished o fields needed a restndo roman times every 2 year the fields were given a restthey were still tended to though weeding etc o one field was for wheatfallow fieldsclover or turnip o you need far less landpotatoesget more nutritional value as graintho every 4 crop failed in some wayrainy seasons pests some other reasons etcnot enough for marketchurchfor an entire year were seed kernelsdo you eat the kernels to survive th Every 4 year peasants went hungryReligious orderscharities o Only social mediaGrains produced for bread o Bread was a stapleate morning day nightFruitsvegeseasonalMeat was a luxury o Only protein but some legumes o Once a weekthe most they could acquireHolidayso Afford wine maybe beerDrank mostly water not pure Living with animalso Diseases spread o Couldnt afford a separate barn o Sometimes a wall in the house but usually not a door o Smells emanated from stalls into living roomFloors were all dirt o Windows were a luxuryPeople had windows were taxed at a higher rateIncentive for peasants to have no windowsLiving areas were dank no privacy rooms are rare everyone slept togetherRented land not owned o Owned by lords o Land was expensive and hard to getMost peasants9 acreso 3hectorso just sufficient to feed the family for a year
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