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HIST 277 (11)

Child Welfare and Protection

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University of Waterloo
HIST 277
Catherine Briggs

Wednesday, October 9, 2013 Wednesday, October 16, 2013 Lecture 5 The Reform Movement Stabilizing Families and Protecting Children Social Reform - Movement devoted to addressing the social problems of the late 19 century - Lead to a vast increase in state laws and legal institutions - Social gospel – tendency to focus on the morals of the individual o Organizations of the social reform movement that seek to address the problems of society through the Protestant churches o Helps with one’s own salvation o Ideology: spiritual activity fulfills what God wants – purifying the community – creating the kingdom on earth o Social problems as a result of character flaw in morality and lack control of unlawful behaviour - Example: temperance movement o Huge mass movement of those from the middle classes in Canada o Those who weren’t involved adhered to the philosophies o Character flaws and larger social problems (child abuse, poverty, etc.) were caused by alcohol use in general o Prohibition laws - Progressives/social reformers o Like social gospels, but approach goes beyond individuals when it comes to solutions o They will look to repair the individual, (teach them not to drink) but also look to fixing the larger society o They will advocate for the improvement of the environment around for creating a moral society Child Welfare - English Poor Law Tradition o Direct assistance of the poor in British tradition o Welfare provision under the social reform groups - Case of Poor Children, pre-1880 o “Deserving” – children had always received greater compassion o House of industry – poor institution – Ontario, 1837  House the poor in general, not just children  Providing care for the deserving and undeserving  Shelter and food, but they worked - Pauper Apprenticeships o Ontario, 1799 – child orphans should be placed in separate (religious) care institutions or apprenticeships - Important role of families in colonial society - Apprentices were in demand in Ontario o Always a need for an extra set of arms – whether male or female o Taught and will be properly cared for o Child welfare system worked initially Wednesday, October 9, 2013 Wednesday, October 16, 2013 Lecture 5 - 1830s – response to mass immigration and increasing number of orphans o Increase in juvenile delinquency o Cholera epidemic (spread through contaminated water) - Children’s homes: o Began developing in 1840s o Protestant Orphan’s Home – Toronto, 1853 o Provided for apprenticeships (ongoing preference for placing children in families)  Raise funds from own Christians, but still petitioning to government for some financial assistance (limited resources)  Vocational training, education, moral guidance  Minimum age of 12 before a child could become an apprentice  Though they were generally from 9-12  Relieving pressure from organizations o Toronto Slum, 1914  Divided by economic conditions, ethnicity, and religion  Rough living standards – crowded housing, unsafe urban sprawl “Child Savers” - Late 1800s, concern for growing number of orphaned, neglected, and delinquent children o Development of social reform, determination in reforming society - “Crisis” of the Family – social problems that result of failure of family to fulfill its role o More delinquent children (violating child norms in society) o Result of family’s breaking down and not fulfilling their appropriate roles in soc
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