Lecture 4 - Marching into the Cataclysm Very detailed and excellent note to study!!!!! Based on the commencement of the civil war from lecture 4 of the course! Essential to getting a good grade!!!
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HIST110 Jan 19 2011
Lecture 4: Marching into the Cataclysm
The Photographs of Civil War Soldiers
Custom when enlisting in the army was to have your picture taken after receiving
uniform from quartermaster.
Represents a gateway to another time; a past; to look deeply into faces of soldiers,
outfits, fancy hats, etc.
You had to be very still; therefore, photos of combat could not be taken during
battle, only after.
This was a period of widespread excitement in the north and South.
Average age was 26, and for Confederates were slightly over 26.
The Confederate States of America
Civil war began with widespread idealism; papers in South said it was a long war,
short war, etc. People had images of a romantic war, and relatively bloodless.
New York times predicted that the war “local commotion” when the South would be
crushed in 30 days. Southern newspaper “Raleigh Banner”, said army in the South
would be made from the best material, while Lincoln army would be the sewers of
The Confederate States of America II.
Succession from the Union (December 1860 to May 1861).
Caused a chain reaction of succeeding states: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and
The only states remaining were: Kentucky, Missouri, Maine, and Delaware.
Jefferson David (1808-1889) was chosen by America to be the first president ever.
Born in Kentucky, 100 miles away from Abraham Lincoln, and to modest
He attended military academy at WestPoint where we was mediocre student.
Left military to marry daughter of Zackary Taylor and moved to a plantation, and
died 3 months later to yellow fever.
Davis’s brother gave Jefferson a plantation as a gift and even offered to look after it
when Jefferson moved to politics. Plantation involved growing cotton.
HIST110 Jan 19 2011
Jefferson was asked to become President.
Jefferson Davis is sworn in as President of the Confederate States of America in
Montgomery, Alabama, February 18, 1861.
Confederates of the South emphasized slavery, as it was cornerstone to economy.
Pomp & Celebrations
Washington D.C. was full of excitement when Fort Sumter was shelled.
Mood in nation’s capital was tense, and Lincoln, had limited political experience.
Army had fewer than 17,000 men when Lincoln took office.
Only 2 generals in American army had fought or lead In previous war.
Country without much of a military, and one they had, was poorly organized.
First thing Lincoln ordered was to gain 75,000 militias to protect the nation’s capital
by positioning around buildings, until a real military could be organized and
Lincoln mobilizes for war.
Communities in the north and south celebrate the coming of war.
Many enlist in the war almost instantly.
Entire towns lining up at recruiting stations, brothers and fathers, grandfathers,
In the North, large number of immigrants joined the union armies in large numbers.
Immigrants volunteered because they became patriotic quickly, a way of making
money as they were poor, and gave them stability.
For many Americans, civil war was an important time in their life.
“Protecting family & home…” Confederate soldiers march off to war, spring 1861.
For Southerners, slavery was not important for fighting because they knew it was
foundation for economy and essential.
Most young men who joined the Confederacy were to fight for Sovereignty of States.
They believed Northerners were systematically trying to destroy Southern Society.
Making it like north to build factories, cities, etc.
Southerners regarded Northerners as invaders who were marching in the South to
destroy their way of life.
Southern honor, masculinity, was very important to fight for their country.
Preserving the Union: Northerners mobilize for the war, spring 1861.
HIST110 Jan 19 2011
Northern main goal was to keep the US in tact.
Early in the war, Northerners were indifferent or hostile to the notions of freeing
Vast majority of Northerners hated slavery because it made whites lazy and reliant
on the labor of others.
Abraham Lincoln was main person who brought the idea that the fight was to
protect the Union not to abolish slavery.
IV. The War Commences
Southern vs. Northern strategy both sides had national and military strategy
South: National = Defense of political independence and defend its borders and
rights to sovereignty to exist. Plan was to block major forts, rivers crossings,
mountain passing especially along borders and seaports.
North: Strategy was to conquer the south, bring states that had succeeded the
union back to the union. Federal army had to destroy the army and bring down the
government. If not the war would continue.
The Anaconda Plan (1861-1865): The massive Union blockade of Southern ports
along its waterways & this was essential because survival of South was to export
Cotton and import European goods. The challenge posed by Confederate “blockade
runners”(ships capable of travelling at high speeds to go to Havana and trade with
Beginning of Civil war US had a small Navy. Therefore, Lincoln ordered the
construction of a whole new fleet of Union ships. By the end, the US boasted 671,
471 ships, which were on blockade duty. This was kept in place until the end of the
war, and succeeded to eliminate International trade with the South.
A few words about the North’s advantages over the South: a) The North maintained a
strong Navy, while the South did Not, b) The North had a larger population, c) The
South had the advantage of fighting on home turf., d) Numbers proved that this
would be a short war, as North seemed to be a lot more powerful than the South. Ex.
North produced 97% of all firearms e) The South didn’t have these big factories that
the North had, f) Northern farms were more mechanized than Southern farms, g)
North standardized railroad track gauges, and they could do this because they had
potent industrial output, h) South used European imports to their advantage.
Custom when enlisting in the army was to have your picture taken after receiving uniform from quartermaster. Represents a gateway to another time; a past; to look deeply into faces of soldiers, outfits, fancy hats, etc. You had to be very still; therefore, photos of combat could not be taken during. This was a period of widespread excitement in the north and south. Average age was 26, and for confederates were slightly over 26. Civil war began with widespread idealism; papers in south said it was a long war, short war, etc. People had images of a romantic war, and relatively bloodless. New york times predicted that the war local commotion when the south would be crushed in 30 days. Southern newspaper raleigh banner , said army in the south would be made from the best material, while lincoln army would be the sewers of the world. Succession from the union (december 1860 to may 1861).