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TOPIC 2.docx

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University of Waterloo
HLTH 101
Glenn Ward

TOPIC 2 CHANGES IN HUMAN HEALTH STATUSTHE HISTORY OF HUMAN MORTALITYFour main eras in human history 1 Paleolithic 2 Neolithic 3 Industrial Revolution 4 Modern EraMajor Determinants of Human Survival 1 EnvironmentHumananimal proximityHumanhuman proximityNutrition 2 Birthrate 3 Death RateThe Epidemiologic Transition 1 Reduced mortalityAll agesInfancy most important improvementFrom constant presence of death to denial of death2 Shift in causes of mortalityFrom infectious diseases greatest in the 1800sTo chronic diseases more likely to die from this today o Later onset usually 50 o Lifestyle diseases nutrition exercise smoking life choices etcdifficulty to treatprevent because you have to alter someones lifestyle 1 PALEOLITHIC ERA 4000010000 years ago also known as the upper Paleolithic erao Humans lived predominantly as huntergathererso Evidence of health status obtained from gravesiteso Generally evidence suggests that they were well nourished good protein nutrition appropriate fat intake good complex carbohydrate nutritiono Life expectancy appeared to be40 yearso Cause of deaths not always clearEvidence of serious injurytrauma Evidence of septicemia Evidence that macro parasites were often present Very slow or nonexistent population growth
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