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Lecture 2

Hlth 101 - Fall 2013 - Lecture 2 Review.docx

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HLTH 101
Ian Williams

Health 101 – Midterm #1 Review Lecture 2  Biomedical Definition of Health (classical) o State of normal function that can be disrupted from time to time by disease.  Depends on the body’s ability to function normally  1948 WHO Definition of Health o Physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity  Health as a resource o WHO: Health Promotion Movement in 1980s o “The extend to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities”  Wellness = optimal health and vitality o Subtle distinction between health & wellness  Health can be influenced by factors beyond your control  Wellness is largely determined by decisions you make about how you live your life o The Dimensions =  Physical – eating well, exercising, healthy habits  Emotional – optimism, self-esteem, dealing with your feelings  Intellectual – challenging yourself, ability to think, openness to new ideas  Interpersonal – ability to establish and maintain satisfying relationships, communications  Spiritual – sense of belonging to something greater than yourself, capacity for love, compassion,  Environment – livability of your surroundings, safety of water/food supply, reducing pollution and waste  The six dimensions interact continuously influencing and being influenced by one another  Three perspectives: Disease, Sickness & Illness o Illness – a person’s subjective experience of their symptoms (noticing you are sick) o Sickness – social & cultural conceptions of a condition (normal sicknesses in that particular area/ cultural beliefs and reactions) o Disease – underlying pathology; biologically defined (doctor’s perspective)  The Morbid Society – more and more people want to be told they are sick then just deal with hardships in life/ jobs/ laziness/ criminal offense…  Biomedical model of illness o Focus on pathological processes – understanding, diagnosing, and treating the physical/biological aspects of disease o Removal of pathology results in restored health o Reductionist – abnormal structure or function of cells, organs, and systems  Ignores the idea that different people respond in different ways to the same underlying pathology  The Clinical course of a disease, from the biomedical perspective 1. Exposure to pathogen 2. Preclinical Phase a. Biological onset of disease b. Symptoms appear 3. Clinical phase a. Diagnosis b. Therapy begun 4. ‘Outcomes’ (cured, living with disease, deteriorated, died) a. Possible relapse & change in therapy = back to diagnosis)  The WHO impairment, disability, and handicap triad o Disease Onset > Impairment (loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function) > signs and symptoms > disability (restriction in ability to perform a function that may result from an impairment) > consequences > handicap (disadvantages that results when a disability or impairment limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role)  Causes, risk factors, and determinants o The interacting triad of causal factors  Agent – virulence, infectivity  Host – genetic susceptibility, resiliency, nutritional status, motivation  Environment *– public health, sanitation, social context, availability of health care  Risk factor – a variable associated with an increased statistical probability of contracting a disease or infection  Determinants – causes of risk factors o Physical, social environment, biological and behavioural determinants  The 12 Determinants of Health- PHAC o Income and social status o Social support networks o Education and literacy o Employment and o Social environments working conditions o Personal health, o Physical environments practices and coping o Healthy child skills development o Biology and genetic o Health services endowment o Culture o Gender  Both (risk factors and determinants) are correlational NOT causal  Clinical Course of a Disease: Pre- and post-disease stages 1. Etiological phase a. Social & environmental determinants  Living environment, community circumstances, conditions in society b. Risk & protective factors  Personal factors: lifestyle, genetics, education, occupation, social supports 2. Preclinical phase a. Biological onset of disease, impairment, symptoms 3. Clinical phase a. Diagnosis, therapy, initial outcome, disability 4. Post-clinical phase a. Long-term outcome: impact on family, work, economic impact = handicap  Socioeconomic position – stress involved with low income (can have an impact on risks) – can start affecting as early as birth  Public and Population health o “Both are concerned with patterns of health and illness in groups of people rather than in individuals; both monitor health trends, examine their determinants, propose interventions at the population level to protect and promote health, and discuss options for delivering these interventions” o Population model takes a broader perspective & often looks at ‘underlying socia
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