HLTH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Natural Health Product, Relative Risk, Medicine

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HLTH 101 – Week Nine Notes
What 4 characteristics must symptoms have for you to see a physician?
1. Severe - Ex. Severe pains, major injuries
2. Unusual - Unexplained lumps, spotty vision, blood in spit or stool, mole
(specific symmetry can mean you have skin cancer)
3. Persistent - Ex. Sore that doesn’t heal within a month.
4. Recurrent - Ex. Recurrent headaches, fever (in general that lasts for more
than 5 days), some sort of wound that didn’t heal within a month, cough that
hasn’t stopped after 2 weeks, recurring stomach pains, back aches (although
this could just be an ergonomics issue
What are the signs of a stroke?
-Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one
side of the body” because it is lack of blood supply to brain
-Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech.
-Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
-Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination.
-Sudden severe headache with no known cause.
-4 Questions to Ask:
What are the 4 main categories of Health Canada’s
Medicine Chart?
1. Name of medicine
2. Dosage
3. Time taken
4. Reason for taking
What are the 2 components of medicine labels that must always be read?
1. DIN (Drug Identification Number) - Computer-generated 8 digit number
assigned by Health Canada to a drug product prior to being marketed
oUniquely identifies the following product characteristics:
manufacturer; product name; active ingredient(s); strength(s) of
active ingredient(s); pharmaceutical form; route of administration.
2. Monograph= A statement that specifies the kinds/amounts of
ingredients a drug or class of drugs may contain, directions for drug's use,
conditions in which it may be used, and the contraindications to its use.
What is Aspirin and what are its implications?
-Aspirin = A “blood thinner” so people take them all the time when heart
attacks run in family
-Coated Aspirin – taken for people who have stomach problems with normal
aspirin (this one is coated), but effect obviously isn’t as strong
-Reye’s syndrome – complication that can develop when given to children for
flu
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What is CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine)?
-CAM = Therapies and practices that do not form part of conventional, or
mainstream, health care and medical practices as taught in most Canadian
medical schools and offered in most Canadian hospitals.
oRelaxation techniques
oHerbal medicine, naturopath
oMassage
oChiropractic
-Usually in addition to seeing a normal, general practitioner
-Normally for chronic problems that they haven’t been able to shake
oChronic weight gain, back pain, to boost immune system, lower
cholesterol levels
-Natural health products regulated by Health Canada’s Natural Health
Products division
What are the 4 premises and assumptions of conventional (standard Western)
medicine?
1. Disease is caused by identifiable physical factors (pathogens, genetic factors,
and unhealthy lifestyles.)
2. Certain set of symptoms similar in most patients suffering from same disease
3. Public health measures to control pathogens  end to Age of Pestilence and
Famine
4. Use of pharmaceuticals, surgery, & advanced medical technologies
What are the 7 methods of obtaining data that conventional medicine is based
off of?
1. Empirical - Objective & systematic observations
2. Rational - Follow rules of logic
3. Testable - Can make additional predictions
4. Parsimonious - Explain with fewest # of causes
5. General - Broad explanatory power
6. Rigorously evaluated - By many different people
7. Tentative - Scientists must be willing to toss out their hypotheses
What are evidence-based practices?
-Evidence-based practices = Practices of health care in which the practitioner
systematically finds, appraises, and uses the most current and valid research
findings as the basis for health-related decisions;
oMedicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, etc.
-Research ranges from case studies to randomized controlled trials on large
populations to systematic reviews & meta-analyses, + practice guidelines.***
-Research areas include:
oCauses of and risk factors for diseases
oTesting for the safety and efficacy of certain treatments/interventions,
drugs (approval and post-market)
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