HLTH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion, Passive Monitoring, Occupational Safety And Health

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HLTH 101 – Week Two Notes Cont’d
What are the 4 stages of prevention?
-Primordial: at population
level, not individual
oEx. sanitation – having
proper removal of
sewage to prevent
infectious disease
-Primary: preventing onset at
individual level (i.e. lifestyle
choices) AND/or population
level via risk reduction (behaviours, exposures) or enhancing resistance (ex.
through vaccines)
oSpecific causes and risk factors for specific diseases
oPromotion of healthy behaviours (specific for certain diseases)
-Secondary: at medical/clinical level – attacking and treating at earlier stage
to prevent spreading/worsening as soon as possible
-Tertiary: preventing relapses and further worsening
-Example:*
What is surveillance and what does it entail in the case of healthcare?
-Surveillance = the on-going, systematic collection and analysis of population-
level health information, in order to guide the design of public health and
preventive interventions
-May include:
oLong-term, passive monitoring of general health trends
oActive, short-term checking for emergent diseases or outbreaks
What is public health protection and what does it deal with?
-= Primordial and primary prevention activities + one of the roles of PHAC
and other government agencies
-Deals with reducing threats to the health of the population
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