HLTH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Cytotoxic T Cell, Adaptive Immune System, Hematopoietic Stem Cell

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HLTH 101 – Week Ten Notes
What is the Chain of Infection?
-Target specific links to decrease transmission of public diseases
-Transmissive diseases go through this chain of infection - Ex. Ebola
-Remember John Snow and Cholera
-In indirect there is normally some sort of insect vector (ex. mosquitoes in
malaria)
Key host can become new reservoir if immune system is not strong enough
and disease escalates
1. Pathogen - A disease-causing microorganism (Ex. Ebola virus, Tuberculosis
bacterium)
oDirectly invades cell
oProduced by tissues damaged by toxins
oIllnesses can result
oEx. how cholera  diarrhea - Could just be strategic on bacterium’s
part to leave body through so it can be exposed to more + infect more
oIn case of John Snow and cholera, outbreak was caused by the leakage
of sewage into public water supply and this is how it was spread
2. Reservoir - Natural environment of the pathogen: a person, an animal, or an
environmental component
oOftentimes, the symptoms you feel have more to do with your
immune system’s response
3. Portal of Exit (SPECIFIC) - Pathway for pathogen to leave reservoir (Saliva,
mucous membrane, blood)
4. Means of Transmission (BROADER):
oDirect - Hand-to-hand, sexual contact, contact with body fluids
oIndirect – Animals/insects = vectors; contaminated objects (fomites)
or through air.
5. Portal of Entry (SPECIFIC) - Direct contact with or penetration of the skin
oInhalation of particles or Ingestion of contaminated food or water.
6. New Host
o#1 factor is person’s overall wellness*
oLifestyle – access to healthy foods, regularity in physical activity,
stress (lower socioeconomic status)
oImmune system or resistance to pathogen
oNumber of pathogens introduced
oIf pathogen produces disease in host  host becomes reservoir for
new chain
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How can we break it?
-Interruption of the chain through public health measures and individual
action can prevent disease.
-Pathogen - Killed through public sanitation practices
-Reservoir - isolated and destroyed.
oEx. John Snow discontinuing/breaking water pump
oPasteurization of milk, Keeping water clean (no sewage)
-Transmission - hand washing and wearing of face masks.
-Pathogen Multiplication – immunization or treatment of effected hosts
oHuge issue with HIV because people either don’t know they’re
infected or are too scared to check
oHIV uses enzyme (Reversetranscriptase) that prevents entry into cell
What is the body’s defense system composed of?
-Physical and Chemical Barriers - Skin = 1 of the most important
oPhysical Barriers - First line of defense
Mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive,
reproductive and urinary tracts to suspend bacteria
Cilia projections that push (sweep) the bacteria out of your
body (Nasal hairs)
Tears, saliva and urine that physically flush out microbes (with
help of enzymes)
Mechanical responses - Coughing and sneezing
(Maybe its our defense or maybe pathogen is manipulating us)
oChemical Barriers:
Secretions of the oil glands
Anti-microbial chemicals, such as the enzyme lysozyme found
in saliva, tears and sweat
Acidic pH of the stomach and vagina
-The immune system
oImmunity, Immunological defenders, Symptoms and contagion
oInnate immune response
Initial Response - *****Signals adaptive*****
Kills pathogens by eating them
oAdaptive immune response
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oCarried out by different types of white blood cells (leukocytes)
produced in bone marrow
-Immunization - Types of vaccines, Vaccine safety
How can we differentiate between
innate and adaptive immune response
overall?
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