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Topic 9-Genetics notes.docx

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HLTH 102
Scott Leatherdale

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Topic 9 –Genetics Learning Objectives for this Topic  Understand why genetics is an important non-modifiable determinant of disease  Understand how genetic mutations can lead to disease  Understand how genetic information can inform prevention programming Clicker: Watson and Crick -> co-discoverers of DNA structure in 1953 Genetics is NONMODIFIABLE Cells-DNA-Genome - Cells = fundamental unit - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) tells cell what its function is - 4 types of bases: A(adenine), G(guanine), T (thymine) C(cytosine) - Order of bases -> exact instructions required to create a particular organism with unique traits - Clicker: DNA found in nucleus and mitochondrion, primarily in nucleus - DNA serves 2 purposes 1) Replication 2) Generation of form - Base pairs C-G, A-T - Chromosome= millions of base pairs with some proteins - Genome-> complete set of DNA - all human cells have DNA except red blood cells - Genomics -> how complete set of DNA affects disease  Ontario Health Study, Princess Margaret ->> want complete genome of all participants to be able to compare those who develop a disease vs. those who do not What are Genes? - Sequence of bases of gene contains instructions to make a protein - Each protein has specific function - Focus on genes from disease standpoint - Clicker: What is the purpose of the section of additional bases found between genes?  Tells cell when a gene should be used How do we inherit our genes? - Autosome-> everyone shares - Sex chromosome -> all males have one Y and all females have XX How Do Mutations occur? - Focus on mutations from disease stand point - Simple level of mutation  Copying error -> from zygote on - Interference with DNA from environment can cause mutation - Bod
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