Topic 9 –Genetics
Learning Objectives for this Topic
Understand why genetics is an important non-modifiable determinant of disease
Understand how genetic mutations can lead to disease
Understand how genetic information can inform prevention programming
Watson and Crick -> co-discoverers of DNA structure in 1953
Genetics is NONMODIFIABLE
- Cells = fundamental unit
- DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) tells cell what its function is
- 4 types of bases: A(adenine), G(guanine), T (thymine) C(cytosine)
- Order of bases -> exact instructions required to create a particular organism with unique traits
DNA found in nucleus and mitochondrion, primarily in nucleus
- DNA serves 2 purposes
2) Generation of form
- Base pairs C-G, A-T
- Chromosome= millions of base pairs with some proteins
- Genome-> complete set of DNA
- all human cells have DNA except red blood cells
- Genomics -> how complete set of DNA affects disease
Ontario Health Study, Princess Margaret
->> want complete genome of all participants to be able to compare those who develop a disease vs.
those who do not
What are Genes?
- Sequence of bases of gene contains instructions to make a protein
- Each protein has specific function
- Focus on genes from disease standpoint
What is the purpose of the section of additional bases found between genes?
Tells cell when a gene should be used
How do we inherit our genes?
- Autosome-> everyone shares
- Sex chromosome -> all males have one Y and all females have XX
How Do Mutations occur?
- Focus on mutations from disease stand point
- Simple level of mutation
Copying error -> from zygote on
- Interference with DNA from environment can cause mutation