HLTH102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Dementia

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HLTH 102 – Mental Health Notes
What is mental health?
-Mental Health – A state of wellbeing in which the individual realizes his or
her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work
productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her
own community; Different from the absence of mental illness (much more
than that)*
What does mental health treatment encompass?
-Not just treatment of mental problems, but also the promotion of mental
health for the entire population
What’s the deal with terminology?
-The term “mental illness” is misleading because it suggests that all mental
health conditions or illnesses are the same, or have similar characteristics
-Mental Health Disorder - Often diagnosed (Ex. OCD)
What are the 3 main categories of mental health determinants?
1. Complex interplay of genetic, biological, personality and environmental
factors causes mental illnesses
2. Environmental factors such as family situation, workplace pressures and
the socio-economic status of the individual can precipitate the onset or
recurrence of a mental illness
3. Lifestyle choices (Ex. substance abuse) and learned patterns of thought and
behaviour can influence the onset, course and outcome of mental illness.
How does mental health vary between L and MIC countries?
-Child mental health issue prevalence = similar in L and MIC countries
-Risk factors in LMICs - Socioeconomic status, Lack of access to health care,
PTSD, violence, financial burdens, lack of education
-THINK ABOUT WHY THERE ARE MORE RISK FACTORS IN LMICs BUT
LOWER PREVALENCE!*
-Importance of scaling-up interventions (disseminating service, making it
more available)
What is the prevalence of mental health issues in Canada?
-20% of Canadians will experience a mental illness in their lifetime.
-Mental illness affects people of all ages, educational and income levels, and
cultures.
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What is the deal with mental health issue prevalence among youth in Canada?
-The onset of most mental illnesses occurs during adolescence and young
adulthood.
-Canada’s youth suicide rate the 3rd highest in the industrialized world!*
-Mental disorders in youth are ranked as the second highest hospital care
expenditure in Canada.
-In Canada, only 1/5 children who need mental health services receive them
What is the deal with mental health issue prevalence among adults in Canada?
-~ 8% of adults will experience major depression at some time in their lives.
What is the deal with mental health issue prevalence among seniors in
Canada?
-Rates of mental illness for adults between the ages of 70 and 89, including
but not limited to dementia, are projected to be higher than for any other age
group by 2041.
What are 3 examples of effects of mental health issues?
1. Educational achievement
2. Occupational or career opportunities and successes,
3. The formation and nature of personal relationships
What are the economic costs of mental health issues?
-In any given year, mental health problems cost the economy of well in excess
of $50 billion
-2 main branches of costs:
Direct Costs:Indirect Costs:
-Costs related to care,
disability, and early death
-Costs in uninsured mental health services and
time off work for depression and distress that
was not treated by the health care system
-Employment, Productivity
What’s the deal with suicide in Canada?
-~4,000 Canadians die of suicide in each year
-Males are 3x times more likely to die from suicide than males
-Canadians aged 40 to 59 have the highest rates - Even though suicide is
highest here, there are also other things that kill them (ex. Chronic Disease)
 This is why suicide is 2nd leading cause among 15 to 34 year olds (not
much else kills them at his stage in life)*
-Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death among 15 to 34 year olds, after
unintentional injuries.
-> 90% of people who commit suicide have a mental or addictive disorder.
-Suicide typically results from interaction of mental illness, marital
breakdown, financial hardship, deteriorating physical health, a major loss, or
a lack of social support (Prevalent among 40 to 59 year olds!)*
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