HLTH102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Sub-Saharan Africa, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Condom

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HLTH 102 – Week Four Notes
What has HIV/AIDS entailed since 1981?
-1981-1985: Mystery and Confusion
-1986-1990: Panic and Protest
-1991-1995: Death and Darkness
-1996-2000: Hope and Uncertainty (HART Therapy Lazard Syndrome)
-2001-2005: Commitment and Mobilization
-2006-2010: Setting Targets for Universal Access
-2011-2015: Measuring Impact
What are 4 main methods of HIV transmission?
1. Unprotected penetrative (vaginal or anal) and oral sex
2. Blood transfusion with contaminated blood
3. Contaminated syringes, needles, or other sharp instruments
4. Infected mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding
What are the 3 main global statistics?
1. 36.9 million people worldwide are currently living with HIV/AIDS
2. The vast majority of people living with HIV are in low-to middle-income
countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa
3. 2.6 million children worldwide are living with HIV, and most of these
children were infected by their HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy,
childbirth, or breastfeeding
What is an example of the regional differences present when looking at
HIV/AIDS?
-More than two thirds of people with HIV/AIDS live in Sub-Saharan Africa
What does MDG 6 entail?
-MDG #6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases
oTo have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015
oTo provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS
oTo encourage the pharmaceutical industry to make essential drugs
more widely available and affordable by all those who need them in
developing countries
oTo help Africa build its capacity to tackle the spread of the HIV/AIDS
pandemic
What has the trend of HIV infections, and AIDS-related deaths in the 2000s?
-Increase in early 2000s, but decrease to below start currently
-Projected to keep dropping even further (by 90%)
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What’s the deal with HIV transmission in Canada?
-55% - Men who have sex with men
-10% - Injection drug use
-32% - Heterosexual contact
What’s the deal with HIV prevalence in Canada?
-0.2% Prevalence
-75,000 Canadians living with HIV
-10% First Nations of all HIV cases in Canada
What are the most high-risk demographics among high-risk groups?
-Injection drug users – Eastern Europe and Central Asia
-Sex Workers – Sub-Saharan Africa
-Men who have sex with men – Sub-Saharan Africa
What is the most common cause in special populations?
-Lesotho – Stable heterosexual couples
-Kenya – Casual heterosexual sex
What were the top causes of death among adolescents globally in 2012?
1. Road injury
2. HIV/AIDS
3. Self-harm
4. Lower respiratory infections
What is the global trend for children orphaned due to AIDS in the 2000s?
-Increase until around 2010, where it has slowly begun to decline
-Predicted to continue declining (0 uncared for by 2030)
-However, there has been a drastic increase in the number of children in Sub-
Saharan countries who have lost 1 or both of their parents to AIDS
What is the ABC Strategy?
A. Abstain
B. Be faithful
C. Use Condoms
How has the percentage/prevalence of people having sexual intercourse
evolved since the early 2000s?
-2000-2007 – More males were having sex before the age of 15, More females
were having sex with more than 1 partner within a year
-2008-2014 – More females were having sex before the age of 15, More males
were having sex with more than 1 partner within a year
What is the most efficient, available technology to reduce the sexual
transmission of HIV according to UNAIDS?
-The male latex condom!
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