HLTH201 Lecture Notes - Sun Tanning, Presbycusis, Presbyopia

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16 Oct 2011

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how long a person is expected to live given no change in the mortality rate
Post age 65
Men 78 women 82.7 overall 80.4
Life expectancy
The number of years a species are expected to live given optimal conditions
Life span
Number of years expected to live disease free
Health expectancy
Morbidity: disease/ disability
Mortality: death
How Does Aging Happen
A limit to the number of times a cell can divide, Leonard time
Two Major Schools of Thought
primarily environmental factors, free radical theory, reacting with body's cells
causing chaos!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
causing cell damage, damage DNA, enhance aging
Could be increase in free radicals or decrease in antioxidants
Leonard Theory
Telomere shortens to a point where a cell can no longer divide
How do we live long and Prosper
Does not always follow human characteristics
Animal models
Longggggggggg and Priceyyyyyyyy $$$$$$$$$$$$$$
Longitudinal studies
Group with similar characteristics, centenarians, they've lived a long time, specific
factor that allowed them to live for a period of time greater than the expected
Cohort study
Selective Survival Theory
Some are particularly resistant to disease
Relatively free of infirmities
Their cohort have already died, natural selection, thus free of disease
While women outlive men, men are in better health (80+), natural selection, more apparent in older
Oldest Old
Healthy/robust, fittest of the fist
Better genes, fewer negatively affecting genes, hereditary to an extent , longevity gene
Adaptive ability, can cope with stressful situations, powerful physical and mental reserve
Moderate lifestyles,
Caloric restriction
Has not yet been proven in humans, cannot recreate in a lab environment
Difficult to maintain such a diet, quality of life decreases, can't enjoy life
Opportunity cost yummy food versus life...hmmm
Human Growth Hormone
Illegal, nasty side effects, no evidence of its "benefits"
Taken advantage of, multi million dollar business online
To be classified as a result of aging...
Has to occur to everyone (mostly) in the species
Has to be the result of aging and genetics, changes within the body
Not an environmental factor
Progressively greyer, more wrinkled, changes over time
Harmful to oneself
Complexity of Physiological Aging
Different rates depending on the individual
Affects different aspects of the body at different times, organs, systems, functions
Influenced by disease and extrinsic factors
I.e. Can be worsened by poor health
Integumentary System
Skin, sweat glands, hair follicles, touch receptors, subcutaneous layer of
adipose tissue
Provides protection
Homeostasis, older adults are more immune to fevers and colds
Larges, most visible body system
Skin thins, cuts easier, bruising, loosens
Hair, nails, subcutaneous fat
Age related changes
Sun tanning, smoking
External influences
Musculoskeletal System
Protect body from injury
Support body
Enable movement, balance, daily activities
Loss of height, loss of muscle mass and strength, body fat increases as muscle
mass decreases, reduction in bone mass, decrease in joint flexibility
Exercise has been proven to reverse the aging process
Age related changes
Sensory System
Vision, hearing, balance, equilibrium, taste and smell
difficult seeing up-close (presbyopia)
Lens becomes less elastic,
decrease in acuity, clarity, night vision
Lens thickens, clouds, less light in,
glare more of a problem
Cornea thickens and is less transparent
More illumination and time to adjust to light change
Decrease in pupil size
Task lighting is crucial, well lit areas, opposing the notion of energy saving, seniors
require more lighting to prevent accidents
Impacts independence, driving abilities, stop driving at nights
Affects cochlea, part that receives and transmits auditory info
Noticeable with high frequency, can't hear wives anymore
Debatable: said to be because of noise damage or aging
Accumulation of ear wax, arthritis in bones of middle year
Messes up balance and equilibrium, dizziness, light headedness, vertigo,
hypertension, blood rushing when changing posture
Decreases in efficiency and vital capacity
Cardio respiratory
Decrease in function thus risk of infection
Lymphatic and immune
Decrease in kidney efficiency and bladder capacity
Decrease in info processing speed, reaction time, sleep efficiency, ? Memory
nervous system
Decrease in insulin sensitivity and ability to regulate diabetes
Menopause, decrease in estrogen and vaginal lubrication
Decrease in testosterone, enlarged prostate, testes sag, longer for
Society is advancing in terms of digestive care
Biological & Physical Aging
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Society is advancing in terms of digestive care
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Lecture Topic:
When a disease has many medications, there are no cures, false hope, attempt to alleviate symptoms
Mistaken for normal age related changes (age related vs something more serious)
More than one disease at a time, is it the result of the existing condition? New condition?
Co morbidity
Side effects of medication, new symptoms or is it side effect of ones medication
With older adults diseases affect elders uniquely, people have different ways of coping with chronic illness
Variable impact
Difficult to diagnose
Heart disease>cancer>stroke>respiratory disease>chronic liver
Chronic Illness
Many canadian seniors rate health as positive
Infection, injury, degernerative conditions, auto immune
Several different diseases/disorders with several causes
More common, 1 in 10 Canadians, men=women, after 45, ~85% are affected by 70
Hips, knees, hands and spines
Pain, joint disfigurement, limited movement
Wear and tear, often in athletes, joints work harder than they are supposed to
Familial , excess weight, greater risk if it runs in your family
Maintain healthy weight
~1 in 100 in canada
Twice as women get RA, as men
Most develop between 25 and 50
Affects manty different organs (lung, heart, connective tissue in any organ)
Pattern of joint involvement differ
Elbows shoulder, neck, jaw, feet, ankles, hips (no spinal involvement )
No known cause
Abnormal immune system response
Medication, exercise, optimal body weight
Two most common
Arthritis: inflammation of joint
Porous, brittle bones
1:4 women> 50, 1:8 men > 50, loss of estrogen has a very negative effect on the calcium levels in the body
1.4 million Canadians, fairly common disorder, especially in older women, dowagers hump, decrease in spinal mass, thus shortens height
Dangerous--> small falls, minor accidents can cause hip fractures, broken bones, individual becomes dependent
Metabolic disorder
1.3 B /year, 25 000 hip fractures, 70% of them osteoporosis, 20% death & 50% disability
Lifting weights is the best aid in preventing osteoporosis
More women die from osteoporosis than breast and ovarian cancer combined
Musculoskeletal disorders
Second leading cause of death
A group of cells that multiple and grow out of control
Most people > 65
MEN: lung>colorectal>prostate>pancreas
WOMEN: lung>breast>colorectal
Unexpected weight loss
Smoking, skinny now but its going to kill
90% of all lung cancer is related to smoking
Risk factors
Lung cancer
Second leading cause of cancer death behind lungs
Unknown cause, may be linked to high fat, low fiber diet
Stool for occult blood
Colon cancer has a better prognosis than lung cancer, if caught early (stage 1- has not eaten too much into bowel wall)-->85% have 5 year
survival rate (10% are actually caught), at stage 4 (15% 2 year survival rate)
Colorectal cancer
Most common cancer in men, 1/6 diagnosed but 30% die from it
More men die with it rather than from it
46% at age 50, 60%@60, 70%@70
Shady line between two types, passive and aggressive
Prostate cancer
During the lecture, take notes here.
Chronic illnesses
Today's Topics:
Resubmit library
Topic 3- Chronic Physical Illness in Older Adults
6:02 PM
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