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Lecture 6

GERON/HLTH220: Textbook Notes for Lecture 6

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HLTH 220
Linda Jessup

Lecture 5 –Psychosocial Perspectives on Lifespan Development and Health nd Textbook: Lifespan Development: A Topical Approach 2 Edition Chapter 5: Modules 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 5.1. Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development - What is cognitive development, and how did Piaget revolutionize its study? - What theoretical elements underlie Piaget’s theory? Piaget’s goal was to understand how children think, rather than characterizing whether their thinking was right or wrong at a given age - He assumed 4 stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational - And movement from one stage to another when the child reaches appropriate level of physical maturation - Schemes, organized patterns of functioning, that adapt and change with mental development - Assimilation is the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking - Accommodation refers to changes in existing ways of thinking, understanding, or behaving in response to encounters with new stimuli or events - Earliest schemes are primarily limited to the reflexes and infants start to modify these schemes through the process of assimilation and accommodation Sensorimotor Stage, the initial major stage of cognitive development - Action=Knowledge, acquire knowledge through direct motor behaviour 1. Simple Reflexes (first month): begin to accommodate the infant’s experience with the nature of the world 2. First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): first habits and primary circular reactions; begins to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities (i.e. gasping an object + sucking on it) 3. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): child begins to act upon outside world (experimentating) 4. Coordination of Secondary Circulation Reactions (8-12 months): goal-directed behaviour, in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem. Object permanence is the realization that people and object exist even when they cannot be seen 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months): which are schemes regarding the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences, infants appear to carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences 6. Beginnings of Thought (18 months- 2years): mental representation is an internal image of a past event of objects; their understanding of causality also becomes more sophisticated. Preoperational Stage - Still not capable of operations: organized formal, logical mental processes. Preoperational thought is symbolic function, the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present o Relies on improved linguistic ability, language allows children to think beyond the present to the future o Centration, process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus – typically its superficial elements –and ignoring others o Conservation is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects  Transformation is the process in which one state is changed into another o Egocentric thought is thinking that doesn’t take into account the viewpoints of others  Largely explains why many preschoolers talk to themselves, even in the presence of others and often ignore what others are telling them: the lack of awareness that their behaviour acts as a trigger to other’s reactions and responses o Intuitive thought use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of the world knowledge  asking “Why?” prepares them for more sophisticated reasoning; begin to grasp functionality, the idea that actions, events, and outcomes are related to one another in fixed patterns; aware of identity certain things stay the same regardless of changes in shape, size, and appearance Operational, organized, formal, logical ment
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