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INTST 101 Lecture Notes

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University of Waterloo
International Studies
Brian Orend

Chapter 1: Core Concepts and Historical Contexts September-10-12 7:00 PM Nation - A group of people who sees itself being separate (language, environment,territory, culture (music, film, food), government,natural resources. It is a state (government)ruling their people. Country - Figure 1.1 (p.3) - 200 countries in the world Top Ten Population: China, India, USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Russia, Japan Top Ten Territory: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia, India, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Sudan Culture - The way of life - There is a distinction between high culture and low culture. - Low culture is more important because it's more commonand widespread (more daily behaviour like what you eat, drink, or read, music, and technology). Global DigitalDivide - divided by who gets it - "Some say it harms globalization." Top Ten Languages: Chinese Mandarin, Spanish, English(most spoken 2nd language around the world, controversysaying this is the top language), Hindi-Urdu, Arabic, Bengali, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, French Top Ten Religions: Christianity, Islam, Secular (Non-religious), Hinduism, "Chinese Folk Religion," Buddhism, Indigenous Folk Religion (e.g. Shintoism in Japan), Judaism, Sihkism, Baha'I, Jainism (* is exam material) *State Actors-> National Governments -> make the rules (legislation) & enforce them (executive power) -> Cops, Military - Defend societyfrom domestic criminals& foreign invaders - Control membership (immigration)& access (border) - Decide what's legal and not -> - Set the ground rules for everything - Massive $$$ resources (via taxation) - Represent that society to the rest of the world - Decide war & peace; economicand social policies; build infrastructure; respond to public emergencies huge impact on our lives - States have less power due to globalization Vs. *Non-State Actors (any non-governmentalinstitution) - MNCs (multinational corporations) -> corporations are for profit = revenue - expenses - NGOs (non-governmentalorganizations) - Social Movements(e.g. Occupy) - Interest Groups (political, economic,etc.) - Churches/Religious Organizations - Armed Force -> TerroristGroups (using killing force on civilians), Insurgent Forces (forces who hate the current governmentand want to overthrowit, want to start a civil war (e.g. in Syria), lots of allies), Private Militias (Sudan), PMCs (fight war for money/forpersonal profit)/Mercenaries(Xe: allies), Private Militias (Sudan), PMCs (fight war for money/forpersonal profit)/Mercenaries(Xe: people who were getting low pay and shot at, provide many military services) Nation-state - gets created in Europe - Midway point -> tiny Greek city state, enormous Roman imperial cosmopolitanempire 10,000years -> settlements/towns,grow food, have a more sophisticated society(mid-east Iraq) 200,000years ago -> human fossils, between Kenya and Ethiopia (Africa) Roman empire lasted for 1,000 years: West (475 BC-500 AD), East (1453AD), compared Greeks - were too vulnerable (shared historical memoryand experience -> how modern societygets formed) European colonization/imperialism 1492: - New World discovered -> race to get colonies - 1945 - 1990:"decolonization" - Table 1.1 (European Nation-State column -> order they get involved) (p.15) Empire Empire is not just Western or Eastern phenomenon;it is everywhere.Eastern is just more structured to the modern world? - Figure 1.2 (p. 10) -> give and take relationship (mother city take more though) - Question: Some people think that the Europe empire is not over, and we live in the American empire. Is this true? - Figure 1.3 (p.17) -> 70% of the world lives in the global south. We (as Canadians) are in the minority. - 25% of the world population -> Way more: - weed -> tbc below - 75% of the world population -> way less -> tbc below Wealth, health, power, education, technology, urbanized, immigrants, social peace, stable governance, life expectancy, even: reported personal happiness- - Questions: 1. Why has the world come to be split like this? European Imperialism, yes but others, too. 2. Does the North owe the South anything to make up for this? Later's aid & development. A. West vs. Rest, in terms of "Civilization" -> a way of life (loosely equals culture) • Western Europe 1. Colonies • Shared Values 2. Way of Life ○ Individualism ○ Limited, DemocraticEnvironment ○ Free-MarketCapitalism (capitalism:freedom from governmentregulation, people who profit get to keep the money,responsibility to entitlement of designing products like Steve Jobs and Apple) ○ A History of Christianity (though now a separation between church & state) ○ Commitmentto Science & Technology ○ Urbanization ○ Robust "Civil Society"Activity N.B. These are idealized characteristics, and Western societies don’t fulfil them perfectly. Nor are these ideals immune from criticism as ideals: e.g. individualism, capitalism &, for religious, separation between church & state. - MENA = Middle-East North Africa Capitalism (p.20-21, #3): - Private property ownership - Important interaction between buyer and seller NOT the government - Used to have barter exchange B. Huntington on "The Clash of Civilizations" - The farther apart on values, & the closer together geographically, the morelikely war breaks out. - The West vs. Middle Eastern/Arab/Islamiccivilizations - WWII (1939-1945)-> winners are the USA, and the Soviet Union (Russia) (Russians were communists.) - Doctrine of mutually assured destruction (M.A.D.) -> both have atomic bombs, never fought directly, would be both destroyed -> done it indirectly through other countries - Cold War comes to an end, Russia goes broke, then USA wins - "Wrote after Cold War" -> predicted next war between USA and Islam - War occurs due to a clash of values - MENA may only have a 1-2 shared values (see above) American Empire? - Most Americans: no way; U.S. formed in revolt against empire any such accusation is bitter jealousy regarding U.S. global success - "Revisionists":there's another way of looking at U.S. history (empire from start) Formal vs. informal Empire -> satisfies this - Whether U.S. is an Empire, or merely Global Hegemon (noun) (hegemony(vb): a power or influence for a given situation), what are consequences for the world? - Figure 1.5 (p.25) • Good: Wolfowitz etal • Bad: Chomsky -> believes all empires are horrible • Could be Good Currently Bad: Ferguson -> What makes a difference is Britain actually cared about colonies, wanted to be a good governor, cared about people) ○ Hegemons - Without a global hegemon, chaos breaks out; we require stability. America provides security and capitalist energy to grow an entire economy. - Imperial control can only be a disaster -> ignorant and resistant to the rest of the world - Brought lost of peace, democracy,and law & order - Metropole: global reach, biggest military force, consumer, etc. - U.S. -> caught in orbit (informal) - Americans only care about New York, Washington, and Los Angeles Chapter 2: Population and Environment September-17-12 7:00 PM 1. Population 2. Environment - Figure 2.1 (p.35) - 7 billion people (1 billion -> 10 000 BC - 1825 A.D., 6 million more in the last 200 years) -> less death - Level off at 10 billion in 100 years - Slow growth due to decrease in birth rate in Global South as the Global South gets richer over time. As people gain more money, they have less kids. • 0-1 kid :) • 1-2 • 3-4 ↓ :( 1. Pro-Natalist (natalist = birth) vs. Anti-natalist ("population control" -> China& India) - China #1 -> 1.3-1.4 billion -> "one child principle" since 1979 -> "been successful" in terms of controlling the rate of growth: abandonment/abortions,male children selected - attacking gender ratios • However,it's not perfectly enforced. Rich people can bribe others with money (unfairness). - India #2 -> 1.2-1.3 billion • Democracy,violates people's rights • Education -> young girls -> birth control pill -> 6-10 - Pro-natalist countries: Denmark,Scandinavia, Japan, Canada (especially Quebec) tries to get more immigrants, has child tax benefits, and have baby bonuses (goes up per child) -> $300 000 for the 1st yr - Slow-growing countries: Islands in South Pacific due to climate and poverty,countries in South and Eastern Europe - Distribution of World's population: 7 billion • 60% is Asia • 15% is Africa • 10% Europe • 8% North America • 5% Central & South America • Remainder: "Oceania" - Population density (order is the same as above except Europe is 2nd/Europeis switched with Africa) - Fast-growing: • Tons of young people ○ Future growth ○ Workforce ○ Energy • Bad: ○ Tons of infrastructure (for economicgrowth), housing, roads, ○ Food growth, transportation ○ Jobs • Most countries in Global South are in this category. - Slow growing: • Older • Wisdom • Bad: ○ don't work anymore ○ need lots of healthcare (Ontario's provincial budget of 50% is consumed by healthcare.), hospitals ○ Not enough future taxpayers to support the aging elderly population (pensions, and other liabilities older people pose) Immigration vs. Emigration - If it weren't for immigration,Canada would have negative population. - Immigration:entering, increases population, Canada has better immigrationthan almost anyone - Immigration:entering, increases population, Canada has better immigrationthan almost anyone - Emigration: leaving, decreases population, Global South (population growth is explosive),"brain drain" -> combat that? - Canada & U.S. border: best border - U.S. & Mexico border: drugs (people emigrate to U.S.) - Emigration in Canada: prevents population decline, diversity (different cuisine, languages, knowledge), increases economicgrowth, increases tax base, more resources to do stuff - Europe: coherent national communities(coherent language, shared history, shared agriculture), controversies - 2nd largest minority group and fastest-growingpopulation in France: Arabs - France has been very aggressive and banned young girls from wearing head scarves in publicly funded elementaryand secondary schools. These schools are secular (non-religious). - France's crisis of identity (Do we hold onto the traditional culture or not?) - Illegal immigrants from Mexico composea huge chunk of the American economy(agriculture, especially in California (biggest agriculture sector in the world)). Their pay is terrible, but they are willing to do it than to go back to their home country. • Breaking law is bad • Good for U.S. economy Immigrants vs. Refugees - Immigrants: economicallymotivated,leaving willing - Refugees: forced out, persecuted almostalways due to political beliefs, ethnic reasons, or religion, "stateless person," extremelyinsecure position to be in, Syria -> refugees -> war or disease - Past 10 years: 10 million refugees a year worldwide • "Refugee camps" -> humanitarian or emergency relief -> then wait - 30 million "people concern" (people are who are about to become refugees, in a rough situation) Urbanization - Majorityof world's population lives in cities (100 000 people +) - 1850 -> only 3% of world's population lived in cities, now 51% Tokyo'spopulation = Canada's national population - - Table 2.3 (p.42) - What triggers urbanization? Major cause: Industrial Revolution -> U.K. (Manchester) • New inventions: steam engine • Mass production of goods • Began around 1750 -> rural -> farm-hands -> worked in factories afterwards • All handcraft physical good production • Factories are created for the first time. • 5/10/25/100X greater growth • Creates pollution - Pros: • Linked historically with modernization, industrialization, diversification • Bigger economy,more opportunity, better social services • Doesn't have to be bad to the environment(up not out), urban planning (Jane Jacobs) - Cons: • Takes over natural space • Comes at expense of "rural way of life" • Concentrationof human problems -> crime, garbage, noise, smells, violence,social tensions • Huge managementproblems -> transportation/transit,infrastructure, garbage collection,electricity CSR = City-State Region - Interconnected& globalization (increasingly interconnected economically,culturally, communicative,political maybe) - Globalization trend for 50 years - Dominatethe regions the countries are located in - Non-State Actors - GTA -> 50% of Ontario's population (416+905area codes), 50% of Ontario's economy,25% of all of Canada's economy Canada's economy • Toronto is like a metropole,and everything revolvesaround it. Theory of the Creative City - Goods produced in the economyare all going to Asia-> no competition(automobileproduction is valued in China) - Goods -> developing world, China in particular - Services -> creative city (one's economyis focused on services that produces a good revenue stream), developedworld will depend on the creativecity 1. "creative class" -> 30% of workforce"get paid to think" • Education industries (need a bunch of well-educated people to have a creativeclass) 2. Creative economy-> professional services (softwaredesign, engineering, architecture, accounting) 3. "pleasing city conditions" -> Jane Jacobs, diverse, 3T's: tolerance,town, & technology - Creative cities: San Francisco and San Jose, London, Vancouver, Toronto,Seattle, Boston, NY, Chicago, Washington Environment - More people, more pollution - 2 problems in the environment: 1. Spectacular growth in population -> 7 billion 2. Industrialization/industrial capitalism • Both problems added together = trashing of the Earth • Boundless consumptionof resources -> so many people in the world -> will trash the world. • Lovelock-> wrote book called Gaia - "carrying capacity" - Optimist vs. pessimist (Easter Island) • Ancient Easter Island was populated by 2 tribes, but they hated each other and decided to go to war. They were obsessed with the victoryof the war. All the trees cut down, grass chewed off, land taken. Everything was used to the sake of the war. There are giant stone heads and wild grass left there. - - Problems 1. "Gold Rushes" vs. Resource Management • Gold rushes: ○ Happens very frequently ○ Unsustainable -> exhaust, nothing left (Rush after that gold and get all of it, leave nothing behind) ○ Short-term economicincentive, has cash • Resource management: ○ Sustainable ○ Some left, program of replacement ○ Regulation, oversight, enforcement,scientifically informed, takes time -> long-term commitment -> national government ○ Sustainable Development92: economyas a whole ○ Long-termfocus -> leaves it there, short-termcashout exhausts resource 2. Tragedy of the Commons • When goods and resources are held in common,they deteriorate. • Used to be the case in England with commongrazing areas (lets cows eat all they want in these areas) -> became completelystripped of all roots & grass (no reason to stop their cows -> common area) • National enclosure movement(enclosed formerly open space, took that commonland, sold it to the highest bidder, the bidder then put up fences so the cows wouldn't come eat everything -> land became completelyfertile again and the grass came back) -> triumph of capitalization at its best (if things are not owned, they will just go to garbage) • How do we avoid the Tragedy of the Commonswith commonresources? -> oceans, space, Antarctica • 1959 Treaty (contractionaldeal between countries) of Antarctica (International) -> "protectedpublic park" - A billion (1/7) people lack sufficient access to food & water. - A billion (1/7) people lack sufficient access to food & water. Green Revolution - 1940-1980 - Massive improvementsin the growing of food around the world - Technology,inventions -> GM crops, irrigation, radiation - Technologygets transferred from North to South - Tripling in production of world's most important crops: wheat, corn, rice - Desalination of water is expensive -> can only use fresh water, lakes, etc. -> water can get polluted from waste - 335 L a day/per capita (Canada) - 350 L a day/per capita (U.S.) - "water poor" (1-2 billion) -> access to 5 L of water or less per day (1 flush of 1 toilet) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----- September 24, 2012 7:00 PM (Focus on Learning Objectives for the beginning of the chapters.) Energy (= calories) - Food & water - Electricity - 5 sources of energy: oil (non-renewable),coal (non-renewable), natural gas, nuclear energy, hydroelectricity - 3 sources of energy in the developing world: coal, oil, biomass (e.g. wood, charcoal, and animal waste, all burned to make heat) - Total world energy consumptionper year is the equivalent of burning 10-12 billion tons of oil. - Oil -> 40% of the world's energy, most valuable commodity - 1973 -> OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) -> most powerful cartel in the world (cartel: when a group controls the majority'ssupply of a good) -> set price - "We're not getting paid enough for our oil." -> *oil crisis in 1979 Price of oil skyrocketedin 1973, oil became much more scarce & expensive - - When the price of oil substantially goes up, the prices of everything goes up - Thus massive inflation caused by cartels -> people's incomesdon't keep pace with the rate of increase in price -> buy less -> people are sad). - People are spending less -> economycloses down -> creates recession -> "stagflation" (recession & inflation). (Normally, economicgrowth goes with inflation & recession goes with lower prices.) -> led to "1970smalaise" - 1982 -> interest rate in Canada was 20% (to kill the inflation) then did the standard gvt spending due to the recession, oil crisis was solved - 2 types of oil: • Easy oil -> ready to go, minimum processing (e.g. Arabia, Persian Gulf) • Hard oil -> takes time, resources, labour power to separate oil from the sand, must be purified -> expensive, forbidding (e.g. Canada) - Eventually, we will run out of easy oil and will have to be forced to use hard oil. - Peak oil theory -> oil is at peak production right now (price keeps going up) - The price of the oil is only going to go up in the future; it won't go down. - Supply of oil will continually decrease, demand will increase (population pressure) -> price goes up (with the result being stagflation) -> lots of inflation (moreexpensive) -> people cut back on expenses -> recession -> back to malaise - The U.S. used to be an exporterof oil, but now the U.S. is now the biggest importer of oil (don't have enough). Climate Change - Authoritativesource on climate change & global warming: IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change(IPCC) - Burning fossil fuels -> CO2 emissions -> temperaturewill rise - Since industrialization began, high global temperatureshave been evident. - Consequences of global warming: - Consequences of global warming: • Rise in sea levels (coasts will flood) • Inland desertification (e.g. the spread of deserts) & water scarcity will intensify • Diseases (e.g. malaria) spread north to Canada • Some ecosystemsmight be destroyed • Extremesof weather will grow (e.g. wind and rainstorms) - What is true? 1. Temp ↑ -> universal agreement (12 of the last 15 years) -> Kyoto -> reduce industrial activity -> cutting economicgrowth (Climate change deniers say, "Why should we cut economicgrowth for something that's not even our problem, but it's the sun's problem?") -> certain harm • Kyoto has fallen apart. Countries in the Global South don't want to be involved. China's a big gas emitter. U.S. doesn't want to competewith China and didn't sign Kyoto. Thus, Kyoto has fallen apart. 2. This is because of man-made activity -> burning of fossil fuels and industrialization -> DISPUTE -> 1) short-term& 2) not man-made -> the sun determineslong-run temperaturesand its impact on oceans - "precautionary principle" -> avoid environmentalharm • Environmentalistssay that even if we're not sure if it's us causing global warming, we might be causing and contributing to it, so we should still reduce industrial activity as a precaution to avoid environmentalharm. - Optimist -> technologicalproblems -> carbon cleaning, renewable energy Optimism 1. Problemscan & have been solved. • Acid rain -> being a problem due to 2 things: ○ Laws ○ Technology -> alkaline  Ended up working • Ozone (holes in the ozone layer, letting in harmful rays) ○ CFCs eat the ozone (found in fridges).  Laws  Technology -> fridges with no CFCs 2. Lomborg • *A lot of fame in technology/technologicalsolutions • Pessimistsunderestimate2 things in particular ○ Our brilliance of innovation (e.g. fridges with no CFCs) ○ Nature's resilience & hugeness 3. Everyonehas a reason to care: • consumers-> good living conditions, care about our children, ↑ D for green products • corporations -> pay fines for polluting, bad reputation/losemarket share if bad polluter, problems with recruiting • Governments -> wants to please people, don't want to pay huge clean-up costs 4. Good environmentalagencies & protection -> EPA, Env. Canada, UNEP (Kenya), NGOs (Greenpeace, Sierra Legal Defence) 5. Earth is not Easter Island. PessimistsReply 1. Successes are few & far between. Failure the norm (Kyoto). 2. Faith in tech may be misplaced. (If tech is so wonderful and is the way out, why is that so many people don't have enough food and water?We should have solutions to simple problems like that.) -> Present problem cast doubt on that. 3. Everyonedoesn't always follow the good reasons. (When the economygoes up, people care more about the environment.When the economygoes down, people care moreabout money, finding jobs, etc. Environmentalismis actually a luxury good. We will always chooseeconomicgrowth over environmentalprotection.) 4. Agencies aren't very effective at all (under-resourced, rely on data from polluters, years behind). 5. Earth might be Easter Island (Gaia). Chapter 3: Comparative Culture September-24-12 7:00 PM 1. No Political Ideology 2. Religion 3. Technologyfor "High Tech boxes" Riz Chart -> International Business & Table Religion - Culture (way of life) - PEW -> over 90% believe in some kind of god - Impacts economy(Max Weber -> wrote a book in 1905 designed to show that religion has a big impact on economy,inspired modern capitalism) • U.K. -> industrial revolutionwas born here (enclosure,legal system,private property) • Netherlands • U.S. • All 3 are protestant countries. ○ Cultural belief & practices -> part of what created a capitalist economy ○ Individualistic (Catholics are more group-oriented.)  Personal relation = personal Rs  Success in this life was a sign of favour from God -> fed the developmentof capitalism 1. Religious vs. Secular - Religious: 90% say they believe in God - Secular: 10%, ↑ in Europe in Canada, Australia, & New Zealand (rise occurs due to expense of Christianity) • Non-believers are overwhelminglyex-Christian. • Canada seemsto have followed Europe. • Northern countries are much more secular. Even if they report belief, they don't hold it as seriously compared to Southern countries. • Southern societiesseek relief or praying to God to help the countries get better. Northern countries are richer because of their own effort (don't need to believe in God). 2. Monotheisticvs. Polytheistic - Monotheistic: one God - Polytheistic:many Gods 3. Abrahamic vs. Dharmic - Abrahamic: (← monotheistic)Western & Middle East, Islam, Judaism - Dharmic (← polytheistic): for Eastern (Hinduism, Chinese, Buddhism) • Impersonally (impersonalforce: Dharma, Kharma, Tao (various gods)) - Table 3.1 (p.81-83) - Case Study: The Arab-Israeli Conflict (p.84-87) - Table 3.2 (p.88-90) High Tech - Big culture change: CommunicationRevolution - Internet -> 1940s/1950scomputersinvented -> Can we make them talk to each other? - U.S. federal government -> $ • communicationbetween computers • Military research -> system that'll survive nuclear wars - 1960s-1970s-> DARPA -> DARPANET -> networkof computers & email (1971) - 1980s-> U.S. brings partners • Europe • Burners Lee (Belgium) -> created HTML & "www" - Late 1980s-1990s-> U.S. -> ok to privatize Internet -> ISP (birth of Internet -> around 1992-1994first commercial) commercial) - 1992 -> 1 million -> Internet & email - 2012 -> 2 billion -> Internet & email - "our lives" -> 88% -> developed North -> Global Digital Divide Global DigitalDivide - 2 billion people have access to high-tech & Internet - 5 billion people still don't have access to high-tech & Internet (7 billion people in the world) - E-medicine -> access doctors remotely - Distance robotic surgery - E-government • tax filing • land ownership/registration • Policy statements - Infrastructure 1. Electricity • 1-2 billion people lack daily access to electricity 2. Literacy • Illiteracy -> 70% female 3. Censorship • China, Syria, North Korea 4. Technology/machinery • Technologytransfer NGOs • One Laptop Per Child (give it to us and we'll give it to a classroom in the Global South) Comparative International Business - Table 6.1 (p.178-179) • Personal leadership styles (e.g. Steve Jobs): ○ Autonomous -> selfish business leaders ○ Group/team-oriented-> focus on group (not for profit, public sector) • Performance-based= objective standard (e.g. engineering, law) ○ "Flat Hierarchies" -> New Economy ○ Participative/Equal-> Not-for-Profit • Lacking in societiesis: a concern for the team. • Table 6.1: Physical & Eye Contact, Decision-making,Legal/Contractual,Social Inequality rows • Before bust of U.S. market -> house for sale, give offer to buyer, and then give it to a lawyer (if they don't meet the price, will sue) • If looking for a job in the U.S -> requires contractual agreement Chapter 4: Foreign Policy and International Politics October-01-12 7:00 PM Foreign Policy - Policy • polis (society/community) • How to run? ○ Domestic ○ Foreign -> How should be we relate to other countries, in particular our enemies, neighbours, & friends? - Pursuit of power (ability to get what you want) • Hard power (short-term) ○ Military force ("Bullets & Bucks" approach) -> change institutions by force ○ Economicstrength ○ More effectivein the short-term, almostimmediatelyeffective • Soft power (long-term) ○ Spread of your culture ○ Political influence ○ Do others agree with your values? • Figure 4.1 (p.99) -> Rogue regime • Great powers ○ Great powers:U.S., China, Japan, India, Germany, Great Britain, Canada ○ Great power -> lots of disputes (e.g. U.S, China, Russia, UK/France, (controversial:Germany,Japan, Saudi Arabia)) -> Does U.S. belong in the same power? ○ U.S., China, Russia, UK/France -> permanent members of UN Securities Council ○ True power has lots of both hard power and soft power ○ Global impact on decisions ○ Rivals -> alpha dog ○ Unilateralist: know policies and pursue them -> what they want, just pursue; only in self-interest, can be seen as in-cooperative) • Middle powers ○ Between great & small ○ Weak military, strong economy ○ Minimal cultural impact ○ Work together: multilateralist(many sided) ○ International law & international organization (e.g. UN) ○ Canada, Australia, Suisse, Scandinavia, Singapore, Japan?, Germany? ○ Japan and Germany decided to have almost no military force later on. ○ Agreeable ○ Good reputation • Small powers ○ Neither hard or soft power ○ International not much impact ○ Majorityof countries in the world ○ Complex foreign policies (not a lot of power but try to get it & try to get what they want) ○ Leverage: ability to use power • Rogue Regime (Contain threat or confront threat?) ○ Rogue: pirate/outlaw ○ Military strength, economicallyweak (minimum resources) ○ Don't follow international law ○ Unilateralists ○ Harmful disruptive problem-generators ○ e.g. North Korea, Iran (pursuit of nuclear weapons) • Failed States (How should we help to rebuild this failed state?) ○ Still exists as a separate country where governmentcan't function -> does not provide protection from the border, from criminals, basic social services, sanitation, healthcare from the border, from criminals, basic social services, sanitation, healthcare ○ e.g. Somalia (one of the poorest countries, continuous starvation, groups don't get along (go to war), pirates (held storage tankers for ransom)), countries of central Southern Africa (spread of HIV/AIDS, population explosion, extremepoverty,lots of gang-related activities and violence) ○ Refugees (if Mexico fails as a state, they will try to go to U.S. and thus U.S. can't afford to becomea failed state) Emergingvs. Declining Power - Emerging Power • Poweris on the rise for these countries • China, Germany,India & Pakistan, Canada?, U.K.? • China doesn't like to go on aggressive wars (most are civil wars) -> cultural, insular country • China is circulated by other emerging powers like Russia, Japan, India & Pakistan. • India -> still have a lot of poverty,one of the top 10 military powers in the world • India & Pakistan used to be ruled as one by the British. After WWII, England dispersed and had to decolonize. The British pulled out. Essential groups in India & Pakistan knew they wouldn't get along and wouldn't stay in the same country. The only way to stop the fight is to split India & Pakistan into 2 separate countries. Nothing but tension between the border occurs (someare not even sure where the border is actually located). They don't like each other or trust each other. Both have nuclear weapons thanks to Canada. Canada helps poor countries develop. Early 1970s -> India demanded for power. Pakistan found out India obtained nuclear weapons, and they planted spies in India and stole the secrets of the weapons. Thus, Pakistan also obtained nuclear weapons. Pakistan is a Muslim country. Iran says you can't reject a Muslim country from having nuclear weapons. As a result, Pakistan is considered an emerging power because of it's nuclear power and military force. • UK's economyis doing well, has tons of cultural influence, has a lot of influence from US • Canada -> good oil, well-managed country, a lot of international influence because of power status, better public finances than US, military strength is nothing compared to US but it's there and we use it (shown military presence along with US, except in Iraq and Vietnam), lots of foreign countries are investing in Canada • Although US is the most powerful country, it's going nowhere but down. It has economicproblems. It has the biggest level of personal and public debt. Infrastructure is just as bad as Canada's or even worse. Their public schools are seen as a disaster. • Figure 4.2 (p.104) - Declining Power • Poweris going down for these countries • Russia, Japan, USA? • Russia: military strength has weakened • Japan: rising star in 1940sand 1960sbut now China has the role (high tech manufacturing is going to China (lower costs too), aging population Foreign Policy: How to Interact with Foreign Countries? - Goals • A. Realism ○ Unconstrained (the Assurance (= Trust) Problem)  Says that the international objectiveis to do the best it can for Canada (other countries don't matter)  Get as much soft and hard power as you can, as many resources you can, spread the influence of your culture -> thus, looking out for yourself (realists are selfish)  Why are realists like this? Some believe this is human nature. We're all fundamentally selfish people and we just try to maximize our resources. Thus, countries should be no different.  But maybe somepeople aren't like that. Countries should still be selfish. Why? Because the international arena is so different from life in a domestic, peaceful, wealthy societylike Canada.  International situations are fundamentally different -> realism is good.  You can't trust that the other country will be on your side. Every country should be a realist because of these insecurities.  Countries with morepower tend to be unconstrained realists. ○ Constrained (National Security)  Completelyout in the open about how selfish they are  Completelyout in the open about how selfish they are  A country that is a realist but wants to hide it. Why? They have less power and would probably not be very successful even if they're selfish.  Countries with lesser power tend to be constrained realists. • B. Idealism ○ Small-scale, gradual (Multilateralism)  You should do your part and try to make the world a better place. You should care about other people and countries. Thus, idealists want to make the world a better place. For example, Canada should help poor villages in India and develop a cure for diseases.  Idealists tend to be middle and small power countries. ○ Large scale, sweeping (Human Security)  Idealists say, weapons (tools of violence and force) don't actually make people secure in their lives. People want to hope for a better future (e.g. better education to lead to a better career). People want to be healthy (healthcare makes people feel secure). They say the realists got it all wrong. • C. Potentialfor CommonGood? ○ "Visionary Realism" ○ "PragmaticIdealism" - Means • Diplomacy • EconomicIncentives • Sanctions (e.g. 1994:Haiti -> don't hurt or invade -> freeze assets • Force ○ Table 4.2 (p.115) - 1989:FTA between US and Canada Cliché/ConventionalView of US Foreign Policy - US as an Unconstrained Realist: • Totally selfish • Obsessed with power & wealth • Throws around its military force and unleashes its free-marketgreed, all over the world • Trying, at least, to get as much as it can for American people; at most, to re-shape the world in US image • Global hegemon; US Empire; "Globo-Cap";"Uncle Sam Wants You" - But strains of Idealism: • Deep strain of idealizing moralismpart of US character • e.g. Wilson getting USA into WWI, when no substantial US interests were of stake: "War for Democracy"(spread of ideals) • USA created League of Nations & United Nations, first-ever global governanceinstitutions • USA generally re-built arch-enemies (Germany& Japan after WWII) • USA gives most aid & developmentaway; strongest promoterof human rights ideals internationally Cliché/ConventionalView of Canadian Foreign Policy - Canada as Idealist Middle Power: • Tries to do what it can to make the world a better place • Invented "peace-keeping,"prefers such to US pro-war • Supports international law, co-operationin foreign affairs, a team player, ardent supporter of UN • Keeps its head down, tries to improvethe globe; one of "the world's most admired countries" as a result - But strains of Realism: • Overwhelming% of Canadian foreign policy resources go to enhancing CDA's power & influence with USA (our only neighbour, our #1 trading partner, accounting for @ 30% of Canada's GDP). Tie into "multilateralism" • As often as we've been a "peace-keeper,"we've fought in w
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