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Chapter 9 in class lecture notes

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International Studies
Brian Orend

Lecture 7 - Chapter 9 October 30, 2013 6:55 PM Human Rights in general RealizingHR - Domestically and Internationally Watched Documentary on Iran HR Issues- Lion Women Human Rights 2 case studies Women's rights and Arab spring Definition Human: CivilRights: legal only in a given country We have these entitlements simplyby being human Vision or ideal - everyone should have the means necessary to lead minimallygood lives Rights: Entitlement, legal/moral Justified claim to something Imposes duty on others, social institutions Why? First Principle/before the fact Appeal to fairness & to what people deserve After the fact appeal to good consequences When HRs are respected, there's more peace, security, wealth, creativity, invention, happiness) But, what are the means necessary to lead minimallygood lives? The three generations + costs First Generation Civiland political rights, CPRs (1215 - 1800) Ex: Magna Carta, US Bill of Rights, US Declaration of Independence (no legal weight),French Declaration Life/security, liberty, private property, non--discrimination, political participation, due process protections (reasons for arrest) Second Generation Socio-economic & cultural rights, ESCR (1800-1945) Material subsistence 1725-1800 Basic education Industrial revolution -> urbanization Basic health & public sanitation Creation of slums -> poverty, crime, disease,lack of public Greater economic equality sanitation Right to form unions and organize better working conditions Tech change Third Generation Nature of economy 1960s+ Greater equality (gender) Environmental protections CanadianCharter of Rights and Freedoms Cultural protections (minority groups) Mix of first and third generation Democracy for the developingworld Right to access the internet? Cost to run an election, 58 million Cheap CPR? CPRs = Negative Rights Rights holder -> claim -> duty bearer (person/institution) Duty bearer does nothing Cheap to provide Ex: free speech, no nothing is the best policy ESCRs = Positive Rights Rights holder -> claim -> Duty bearer Duty bearer must do something to satisfy them Expensive to provide Nazi Values Human Rights Values The Holocaust Genocide National/racialpartiality Universality Target on Inequality,discrimination Equality, non-discrimination Jews Violent brutality Physical security of the person/self, non-violent respect Handicapped Deprivation of freedom for others Communists Theft, starvation Individualsliberty Homosexuals Denial of social recognition to outsiders Private property rights, material subsistence for all Gypsies No democracy (authoritarian regime) Social recognition of others, everyone inside the tent slaves Democracy (political participation for all) How to realize HumanRights? Two Models - Evolution vs. revolution Evolution Revolution From small group From small group -> takes court To majority To state takeover/legalchange
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