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Chapter 7 & 8 in class lecture notes

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International Studies
Brian Orend

Lecture 9 - Chapter 7 & 8 November13, 2013 7:03 PM ArmedConflict Why do wecare? Shapes history Find tool in the foreign policybox Diplomacy, incentives, sanctions, force Hightech -> mostly originatedfrom militarytech 9/11 -> economy depends on a certain degreeof militarysecurity No going to open up a new business in a war zone 2 kindsof force Pin-prick force Assassination of Bin Laden Widespreadforce -> war Ware can be defined as an armed conflict between groups Not a war with at least 1000 battlefield causalities Classicalwar isinternational war War between countries Civil war is domestic Insidea country Causesof ArmedConflict Realism & The Quest of Power Nationalism& Elite Manipulation thereof Lenin: Capitalism & Natural Resources Vested Interests of Military-IndustrialComplex Phrase invented by Eisenhower, President of USA in the 50s Huntingdon on Clashof Ideals Fight out of justice Nazi just has to be beat, religious wars Faludi & War as Expression of Male Dominance Patriarchy Historically,when has women held positions of power? Too much testosterone But really? Margret Thatcher, Queen Victoria etc… Negri:Hegemony& Backlash Empire Keegan: Anthropology - also Ehrenreich Group identity Monkeys go to war For territory, food, and mate Are we so different Freud War as Non-rational Impulse (Tension-Release) 1920 -> "Civilization& Its Discontent", right after WW1 Peopleliketo create things and then destroy them Progress always followed by destruction Victorian Ear followedby WW1 War Strategy Realists Only acceptable end is victory Strategy Means: anything deemed essential Command Political Military Assets ArmedForces army, navy, and air force Weapons Intelligence (what to target) Overall War Plan Surround & Choke Leverage Enemy Surrenders Win International Laws if Armed Conflict Phases of War: Start, middle,end Jus ad Bellum:Starting a War Must have a just cause Self-defence from aggression Armed attack across a border Defence friend/allyfrom aggression UNSC approval Right Intention Main motive must be desire to secure just cause and not, say economic gain Public Declaration by Proper Authority National Democratic through the legislature Non-Democratic, executive power International, UNSC Last Resort INTST101 Page 1 Last Resort After diplomacy/economicincentives/sanctions have all failed Probability of Success No pointless force/force doomed to fail Proportionality Problem must be so big/bad that war is an appropriate solution (e.g. aggression) Jus in Bello: Just Conduct in War Discrimination& Non-Combatant Immunity Due care for civilians Legitimate Targets Most western democratic countries try to adhere to this Combatants - soldiers Ok to kill civilians,if and only if, all reasonable measureare taken to ensure that Source of harm they won't die Militarysupply lines Via intelligencegathering May be easier than fighting soldiers directly Precision weaponry
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