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Lecture

Il Risorgimento.docx

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Department
Italian Studies
Course Code
ITALST292
Professor
Dr.V.Rukholm

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Il Risorgimento: The Creation of the Italian State
Tuesday, March 5, 2013
11:25 AM
Background:
Italy's unification influenced by European revolutionary unrest (e.g. France) at end 18th century
Risorgimento: term used to refer to Italian unification (means 'resurgence')
o The political resurgence that brought Italy together as a country-> only became a country in
the 1900s
o The church had a great influence on the politics at the time
o Political desensitization: trying to keep control of the state
Began: 1815 - Congress of Vienna, end of Napoleonic rule
Ended: 1871 - Franco - Prussian War
o Prussa was a Germany kingdom
Carbonari = 'coal-burners'; secret Italian organization inspired by French revolution; interested in
unification
o Drawn from middle class and intellectual class... Smart people (just out of the
Enlightenment)
o They were becoming quite powerful and the authorities were getting scared
1830: Insurrections laid groundwork for creation of unified Italy; adoption of the tricolore instead
of papal flag
o This is similar to the flag Italy now has
First Italian War of Independence: 1848- 1849
Post- Napoleon: Italian states returned to Austria or local monarchs (including Pope)
Italians desire change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy as a minimum, prefer
unification
o Absolute monarchy: can make or break laws as they see fit; no constitution that is binding
on the monarch
o Constitutional monarchy: there are boundaries as to what the monarch can do; they do not
have absolute control
March 1848: King Carlo Amberto of Sardinia declares war on Austrians, invades Lombardo-Veneto;
Italian states help out and bottle-up Austrians in Austrian Quadrilateral Fortresses (Verona,
Mantua, Legnago, Peschiera); Austrians under General Radetsky; Naples withdraws from war
o Quadrilateral: is a strong hold developed by the Austrians
Austrians defeat Italians at Custoza (near Verona): Austrians were better trained-> Italians were
exhausted and out of supplies
Insurrection in Milan = expulsion of Austrian garrison after five days of street fights (aka "Cinque
giornate di Milano")-> the five days of Milan
Austrian army took over Milan, but as result of popularity of Milanese, were forced to retreat.
Soon, King of Sardinia, urged by Venetians and Milanese to aid their cause, decided this was
moment to unify Italy, declared war on Austria.
armistice quickly agreed to, Radetzky regained control of all of Lombardy-Venetia except for
Venice itself, where a republic was proclaimed.
armistice lasts 7 months: King of Sardinia cancels it & leads state to war (1848); Austrians win at
battle in Piedmont; King of Sardinia surrendered and abdicates for his son, Vittorio Emanuele
Venice resists the Austrians

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Description
Il Risorgimento: The Creation of the Italian State Tuesday, March 5, 2013 11:25 AM Background:  Italy's unification influenced by European revolutionary unrest (e.g. France) at end 18th century  Risorgimento: term used to refer to Italian unification (means 'resurgence') o The political resurgence that brought Italy together as a country-> only became a country in the 1900s o The church had a great influence on the politics at the time o Political desensitization: trying to keep control of the state  Began: 1815 - Congress of Vienna, end of Napoleonic rule  Ended: 1871 - Franco - Prussian War o Prussa was a Germany kingdom  Carbonari = 'coal-burners'; secret Italian organization inspired by French revolution; interested in unification o Drawn from middle class and intellectual class... Smart people (just out of the Enlightenment) o They were becoming quite powerful and the authorities were getting scared  1830: Insurrections laid groundwork for creation of unified Italy; adoption of the tricolore instead of papal flag o This is similar to the flag Italy now has First Italian War of Independence: 1848- 1849  Post- Napoleon: Italian states returned to Austria or local monarchs (including Pope)  Italians desire change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy as a minimum, prefer unification o Absolute monarchy: can make or break laws as they see fit; no constitution that is binding on the monarch o Constitutional monarchy: there are boundaries as to what the monarch can do; they do not have absolute control  March 1848: King Carlo Amberto of Sardinia declares war on Austrians, invades Lombardo-Veneto; Italian states help out and bottle-up Austrians in Austrian Quadrilateral Fortresses (Verona, Mantua, Legnago, Peschiera); Austrians under General Radetsky; Naples withdraws from war o Quadrilateral: is a strong hold developed by the Austrians  Austrians defeat Italians at Custoza (near Verona): Austrians were better trained-> Italians were exhausted and out of supplies Insurrection in Milan = expulsion of Austrian garrison after five days of street fights (aka "Cinque giornate di Milano")-> the five days of Milan  Austrian army took over Milan, but as result of popularity of Milanese, were forced to retreat. Soon, King of Sardinia, urged by Venetians and Milanese to aid their cause, decided this was moment to unify Italy, declared war on Austria. armistice quickly agreed to, Radetzky regained control of all of Lombardy-Venetia except for  Venice itself, where a republic was proclaimed.  armistice lasts 7 months: King of Sardinia cancels it & leads state to war (1848); Austrians win at battle in Piedmont; King of Sardinia surrendered and abdicates for his son, Vittorio Emanuele  Venice resists the Austrians  Roman republicans declare Papal States to be a new Roman Republic: Louis Napoleon of France sends troops to capture Rome and restores papacy; city capitulates to France in June 1849 o France sent reinforcements up to 30,000 volunteer soldiers  Sardinians defeated at Novara= more Austrian troops against Venice; Venice capitulates because of disease and starvation  Loss of Venice means first war formally over; treaty signed on August 9, 1849 The 2nd War of Independence: 1859  Napoleon (member of Carbonari in his youth), convinced was his destiny to help Italy  Sardinia's King Vittorio Emanuele and chief minister Camillo Benso Count of Cavour send troops in 1856 to fight in Crimean War -> establishment of positive relations with France  Cavour met with Napoleon III and signed secret agreement, "patto di Plombieres"; agreed to joint war against Austria o Ill scratch your back if you scratch mine o It didnt take much to get the Austrians  Piedmont-Sardinia gained Lombardy and Veneto and Duchies of Parma and Modena; France rewarded with Savoy and Nice; central and southern Italy remained as was  Short war in 1859: Austrian advance into Piedmont incompetent and unable to secure Alpine passes before arrival of French army (heavy rains = floods = impasse) o Austrians were picked based on social status not fighting abilities (140,000 men) o Austrians were stuck because of the rain; overflowing of rice fields o Austrians retreated  French and Sardinians victorious over Austrian army: circled troops north and used railway lines to move army across River Ticino; Sardinian troops sent west of Milan and Austrians caught unaware; Austrians withdraw to Quadrilaterals o The Austrian army was left in complete confusion and had to retreat back over the river  Napoleon III sought peace:
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