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Lecture

Summary Chart for Upper Limb Summary chart for muscles of the upper limb including their origin, insertion, innervation and main action.


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KIN100
Professor
Stephen Prentice

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Anterior Axioappendicular Muscles
Muscle Proximal Attachment
(origin)
Distal Attachment
(insertion)
Innervation Main Action
Pectoralis
major
Clavicular head: anterior
surface of medial half of
clavicle
Sternocostal head:
anterior surface of
sternum, superior six
costal cartilages,
aponeurosis of external
oblique muscle
Lateral lip of
intertubercular
groove of humerus
Lateral and medial
pectoral nerves;
clavicular head (C5,
C6), sternocostal
head (C7, C8, T1)
Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws
scapula anteriorly and inferiorly. Acting
alone, clavicular head flexes humerus and
sternocostal head extends it from the flexed
position.
Pectoralis
minor
3rd-5th ribs her their
costal cartilages
Medial border and
superior surface of
coracoid process of
scapula
Medial pectoral nerve
(C8, T1)
Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and
anteriorly against thoracic wall
subclavius Junction of 1st rib and its
costal cartilage
Inferior surface of
middle 3rd of clavicle
Nerve to subclavius
(C5, C6)
Anchors and depresses clavicle
Serratus
anterior
External surfaces of
lateral parts of 1st-8th ribs
Anterior surface of
medial border of
scapula
Long thoracic nerve
(C5, C6 C7)
Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic
wall; rotates scapula
Posterior Axioappendicular and Scapulohumeral Muscles (continued)
Muscle Proximal Attachment
(origin)
Distal Attachment
(insertion)
Innervation Main Action
Superficial posterior axioappendicular (extrinsic shoulder) muscles
Trapezius Medial 3rd of superior
nuchal line; external
Lateral 3rd of clavicle;
acromion and spine of
Accessory nerve (CN
Xl) (motor fibers) and
Descending part elevates;
ascending part depresses; and

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occipital protuberance;
nuchal ligament; spinous
processes of C7-T12
vertebrae
scapula C3, C4 spinal nerves
(pain and proprioceptive
fibers)
middle part (or all parts
together) retracts scapula;
descending and ascending parts
act together to rotate glenoid
cavity superiorly
Latissimus dorsi Spinous processes of
inferior 6 thoracic
vertebrae, thoracolumbar
fascia, iliac crest, and
inferior 3 or 4 ribs
Floor of intertubercular
groove of humerus
Thoracodorsal nerve
(C6, C7, C8)
Extends, adducts, and medially
rotates humerus; raises body
toward arms during climbing
Deep posterior axioappendicular (extrinsic shoulder) muscles
Levator scapulae Posterior tubercles of
transverse processes of
C1-C4 vertebrae
Medial border of scapula
superior to root of spine
Dorsal scapular (C5) and
cervical (C3, C4) nerves
Elevates scapula and tilts its
glenoid cavity inferiorly by
rotating scapula
Rhomboid minor and
major
Minor: nuchal ligament;
spinous processes of C7
and T1 vertebrae
Major: spinous
processes of T2-T5
vertebrae
Minor: smooth
triangular area at medial
end of scapular spine
Major: medial border of
scapula from level of
spine to inferior angle
Dorsal scapular nerve
(C4, C5)
Retract scapula and rotate it to
depress glenoid cavity; fix
scapula to thoracic wall
Scapulohumeral (intrinsic shoulder) muscles
deltoid Lateral 3rd of clavicle;
acromion and spine of
scapula
Deltoid tuberosity of
humerus
Axillary nerve (C5, C6) Anterior part: flexes and
medially rotates arm
Middle part: abducts arm
Posterior part: extends and
laterally rotates arm
supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of
scapula
Superior facet of greater
tubercle of humerus
Suprascapular nerve
(C4, C5, C6)
Initiates and assists deltoid in
abduction of arm and acts with
rotator cuff muscles
infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa of Middle facet of greater Suprascapular nerve Laterally rotate arm; helps hold

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scapula tubercle of humerus (C5, C6) humeral head in glenoid cavity
of scapula*
Teres minor Middle part of lateral
border of scapula
Inferior facet of greater
tubercle of humerus
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)
Teres major Posterior surface of
inferior angle of scapula
Medial lip of
intertubercular groove of
humerus
Lower subscapular nerve
(C5, C6)
Adducts and medially rotates
arm
subscapulaRIS Subscapular fossa (most
of anterior surface of
scapula)
Lesser tubercle of
humerus
Upper and lower
subscapular nerves (C5,
C6, C7)
Medially rotates and adduct
arm; helps hold humeral head
in glenoid cavity
*supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles are referred together as the rotator cuff or SITS muscles. Their
primary function during all movements of the glenohumeral joint if to hold the humeral head in the glenoid cavity of the scapula
Muscles of the arm
Muscle Proximal Attachment
(origin)
Distal Attachment
(insertion)
Innervation Main Action
Biceps brachii Short head: tip of coracoid
process of scapula
Long head: supraglenoid
tubercle of scapula
Tuberosity of radius
and fascia of forearm
via bicipital
aponeurosis
Musculocutaneous nerve
(some of brachialis
inervated by radial nerve,
coracobrachialis
innervated by nerve C5,
C6, C7)
Supinates forearm and,
when it is supine, flexes
forearm; short head resists
dislocation of shoulder
Brachialis Distal half of anterior surface
of humerus
Coronoid process and
tuberosity of ulna
Flexes forearm in all
positions
coracobrachialis Tip of coracoid process of
scapula
Middle 3rd of medial
surface of humerus
Helps flex and adduct arm;
resists dislocation of
shoulder
Triceps brachii Long head: infraglenoid
tubercle of scapula
Lateral head: posterior
surface of humerus, superior
to radial groove
Medial head: posterior
Proximal end of
olecranon of ulna and
fascia of forearm
Radial nerve (C6, C7,
C8)
Chief extensor of forearm;
long head resists
dislocation of humerus;
especially important during
abduction
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