KIN 242 Review Questions
1. What factors constitute healthy movement control?
-successful in time and space, efficient, smooth, avoid injury/harm, and adaptable to the env.
2. Describe feedback and feed forward control, including limitations. What movement characteristics
determine the relative contribution of each type of control?
-feedback: closed loop system where movement is adjusted due the postural disturbances that
occur -relys on sensory info to specify the motor response –causes a lag
-feedforward: automated response that is adjusted to rapid movement –relies on internal motor
programs –cannot correct for errors
3. Compare a reflex and a voluntary movement. What type of control do they use?
-voluntary: can be reflex initially, but if needs to be corrected becomes feedback
4. What are innate motor programs? What are learned motor programs?
-innate motor programs: specific to individual muscles being used in movement and built in eg.
ventilation, locomotion and mastification
-learned motor programs: when moves become automated, adjusted to specific muscles
5. Consider the example of lifting the three different weights (200, 400, 800 grams). What type of control is
used when the weight lifted is of the expected weight? What type of control is used when the weight lifted
is of unexpected weight? How would a graph showing the acceleration of the weight look in each case?
Explain why the graph would look this way.
-When weight is expected feedforward movement is used, anticipated
-When weight is unexpected feedback control is used to adjust movements programs to get the
forces applied correct
1. What are the three types of glial cells and their functions?
-microglia: phagocytosis of debris
-macroglia (astrocytes): maintain external and internal environment through increasing neurons
and clearing chemicals
-macroglia (oligodendrocytes): forms myelin on axons
2. Describe an action potential including what happens during different phases of membrane polarization.
-Na channels open and rushes in, K channels then open and it starts to flow out, Na channels close
and K continues to flow out, K channels then close –Aps jump from node to node
3. Describe steps involved in conduction of information at the synapse.
-AP flows down the synaptic membrane causing Ca channels to open and neurotransmitter to be
released and bind onto the postsynaptic membrane causing excitation or inhibition
4. List the lobes of the brain and their respective functions.
-frontal: decision making and reasoning as well as control over movement
supplementary and premotor: selection of movement
primary motor: execution of movement
prefrontal: decision between voluntary movement and independent thoughts
-parietal lobe: processes touch and tactile info
post parietal=guides movement
-temporal lobe=learning, hearing, and memory formation
1. Describe the phases and subphases of walking
-initial double limb stance, single limb stance, swing phase, double limb stance, single
limb stance, swing phase
2. Describe two phylogenetic differences between species that walk on two vs. four legs.
-skull foramen is closer to back in 4 legged vs 2 legged in the middle 3) Describe how the characteristics of successful walking are altered in:
a) Ataxic gait
b) Parkinsonian gait
(as per videos)
1. List and describe the components of upper limb control. Give two factors that must be controlled for
-Reach: multi joint coupling in a closed loop which is based on distance, timing, position,
-Grasp: multi joint coupling requiring aperature, hand orientation, and timing of the aperature
opening –guided by shape, dimensions, and properties of object
2. What is meant by 'stereotypical control characteristics'? What characteristics are stereotypical across
target distances? What aspects are somewhat stereotypical across movement speed?
-peak aperature is stereotypical across distance and change in aperature is same across movement
3. Object manipulation requires sensory information about what (two things)? Which two sensory
modalities are primarily relied upon?
-vision and proprioception of body position
4. Name four types of proprioceptors and their location.
-golgi tendons: located where muscle meets tendon
-muscle spindles: located within the muscle
-joint receptors: located within joint capsule between bones
-cutaneous mechanoreceptors: in skin
5. List two CNS regions that contribute to upper limb control and describe their role.
-Cerebellum: timing and precision
-Basal Ganglia: Motor Learning
-Brain stem: sensory integrations
-Spinal Cord: relay of info, reflexes
6. Compare tone and strength.
-strength: tension during contraction
-tone: tension during rest
1. Describe microneurography and what it measures.
-stimulating nerves within a fascicle or a group of nerves measures the electrical potentials they
2. What does electromyography measure? Describe and compare the two types of electromyography.
-electrical activity of muscles
-Intramuscular: samples few muscle fibers at rest then after contraction –accurate measure of few
muscle fibers to diagnose peripheral nerve injury –invasive and painful
-Surface: measures electrical activity of a full muscle through electrodes –picks up on crosstalk
from other muscles
3. Why is there a remaining underlying signal in intramuscular EMG after a prolonged contraction?
-signal deflecting back from the CNS still activates small muscle fibres causing hypertonia
4. What is the difference between the EMG signal in a paretic vs non-paretic bicep? Why does this occur?
-causes lack of relaxation in muscle
5. Describe the different types of Stimulus Response Testing.
-Nerve Conduction testing: test sensory or motor peripheral nerve and to evaluate the conduction
within the PNS
-Reflex Testing: test sensory or motor peripheral nerves and see response in EMG of muscle-
evaluates connection between the spine, PNS, and muscle
-Motor Threshold Testing: stimulate the cortex through TMS and see response in the EMG of
muscles –evaluates the connection between the cortex, PNS, and muscle Lecture 2-3
1. What does electroencephalography measure? Does it receive good temporal or spatial resolution?
-measures the electrical potentials measured by electrodes on the scalp
-poor spatial and good temporal resolution
2. List and describe the different EEG frequency characterisctics
-delta: less than 4 hz-attention tasks, adult sleep and infants
-theta: 4-8 Hz-adult sleep and infants, and inhibition of elicited responses
-alpha: relaxation -8-13 Hz
-beta: working memory, active concentration -13-30 Hz
-gamma: 30-100 Hz –STM, crossmodal sensory processing
3. What is an event related potential? How is noise removed from a measured ERP?
-measures EEG response to a event by measuring it before and after stimuli
-noise is removed by averaging trials
4. List 3 different types of kinematics, including advantages and disadvantages.
-video based: adv: good for overall movement, no wires –disad: no markers, and less precise
-passive: camera emits infrared light: adv: more precise around movements and has markers
–disadv: markers get mixed up
-active: markers emit infrared light –adv: individual cameras and markers –disadv:wires can get in
-electromagnetic: transmitter emits magnetic waves that are detected by a camera –adv: no camera
-disad: wires and electromagnetic waves can interfere
-potentiometer: transducer picks up voltage to detect movement –adv: transportable –disadv: no
global reference point for movement
1. What is peripheral neuropathy? What are potential causes of peripheral neuropathy?
-damage to the PNS or CNS causes damage due to damage to the axon and myelin
-charcot marie disease (damage to PNS causes limb atrophy), leprosy, lymes disease,
idiopathic, mechanical, diabetes, diptheria
2. What are symptoms of diabetic neuropathy contribute to gait and balance disorders? Describe some
possible gait characteristics of a person with diabetic neuropathy?
-symptoms: glove stocking syndrome (in feet and hands first), affects longer neurons first,
paresthesia, dysthesia, proprioception, weakness, loss of fine motor control, dysphagia, and fasciculations
-gait: drop foot, toe scuffing, no toe lift (compensated through knee lift)
3. Describe the mechanisms that lead from hyperglicemia to diabetic neuropathy.
-increased non enzymatic protein glycation and polyol pathwaydamage through demyelination
and vasoconstrictionoxidative stress and reduced oxygen deliverynerve damage
4. List 3 tools used diagnose diabetic neuropathy?
-loss of sensation in motor limb due to infections and ulcers, loss of gait control due to drop foot
and no toe life, and loss of motor function due to foot muscle loss and contractures
5. Describe the evidence for treatment offered by the RCT discussed in class. What is the weakness of this
-epalstat vs placebo –measured median nerve conduction velocity, F wave latency, vibration
threshold, numbness, cramping, and sensory problems –epalstate group had stable whereas control got
1. What areas of the hand are affected by Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? If a student had carpel tunnel
syndrome, how would his/her ability to write an exam be affected?
-sensory: little finger-half of middle finger
-motor: loss of thumb muscle (thenar), and hand stiffness and clumsiness –would have trouble
gripping and and pressing with thumb to hold pencil in place to write 2. Explain Phalen's test and Tinel's sign and screening criteria.
-Phalens: wrist flexion held for 30-60 seconds if median nerve pain occurs in fingers=positive
-Tinels: wrist extensions held for 10 seconds-if pain in distal wrist=positive
3. Describe two MRI-identified symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.
-inflammed median nerve, rounded area instead of flat due to a notch on bone
4. Describe the 4 stimulus response tests for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. How would you expect the
conduction velocity to be effected in each case?
-prolonged M wave, normal conduction velocity of median nerve (forearmhands), slow sensory
conduction (handforearm), and normal ulnar nerve sensory and motor conduction
5. What are 2 causes of radiculopathy?
-disc herniation, and bone spurt/osteophyte
6. Why is peripheral nerve injury a major concern in chemotherapy patients?
1. Describe the mechanism that allows traction to relieve pressure on the median nerve.
-applies linear traction to either side of the wrist and part of forearm to stretch and decompress the
2. What is axonal transport? How are the vesicles moved along the axon? What are the two different types
of axonal transport?
-transport of vesicles, fat, protein and mitochandria down the axon
-moves through substrate walking along the microtubules using ATP
3. What are the degrees of severity in Seddon's and Sunderland's systems? What is the damage to the nerve
in each stage?
-Neuropraxia: focal demylination
-Axontmesis: axon and myelin sheath damage –distal to damage degenerates
-Neurotmesis: can be the axon and endoneurium, axon endoneurium and perineurium, or axon
endoneurium perineurium and epineurium –distal to damage degenerates
4. What is double crush syndrome?
-proximal nerve damage causes distal nerve damage due to impaired axonal transport
1. Explain how an MRI creates an image of the brain.
-outer electrical field causes protons to align within inner magnetic field, radio frequency waves
push protons out of alignment, when they oscillate back this emits energy which is detected
2. How would an area of the brain affected by stroke look on a T1 scan in an MRI? Why would it look this
-T1: myelin damage occurs in whi