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Lecture 13

KIN346 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Broad Sheet Glass, Lamina Propria, Abdominal Cavity


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KIN346
Professor
Danny M Pinicero
Lecture
13

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KIN 346
Human Nutrition
___
October 3
Digestive System
Two main components
1. Alimentary canal
a. Also called gastrointestinal tract (only 1 large part of alimentary canal)
i. Stomach and intestinal system
b. Continuous digestive tube throughout the whole body
c. Lumen = inner hollow area where food moves
d. Function
i. Digestion
1. Breaking down
2. Cannot absorb
3. Cooked eggs is healthier because uncooked eggs contain protein
in native state which cannot be absorbed. Cooking applies energy
which unravels the protein and helps our digestive system with
breaking protein down
4. We eat to get nutrients
ii. Absorption
1. Move all the stuff we digest from the alimentary canal into the
blood
2. This is main goal of eating
e. Anatomical structure
i. Mouth
1. Digestion starts here
2. Some things can be absorbed in the mouth
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ii. Pharynx
1. Throat
iii. Esophagus
1. Connects throat to stomach
iv. Stomach
1. Cardiac orifice is the opening at the start of the stomach and is
near the heart
v. Small intestine
1. Very long which is key to absorption (major absorption structure)
2. Long means more opportunities for absorption
vi. Large intestine
1. Some absorption but not maximized
2. End of large intestine is anal canal
a. This is end of alimentary canal
vii. Considered to be outside the body
1. A food that we consume that has not been absorbed
2. Accessory digestive organs
a. They help with digestion of food
b. Helps Alimentary canal
c. Teeth and tongue
i. Helps break-up food
d. Gallbladder, liver, pancreas
i. Located outside alimentary canal
ii. Secretes chemical into the lumen to help break-up food
6 essential activities
1. Ingestion
a. Get nutrients into digestive system to provide nutrients
2. Propulsion
a. Move food through the alimentary canal
b. initially , it is voluntary
c. Afterwards, it is autonomic reflex
i. Swallowing
1. Chew first
2. Eventually we voluntary choose to swallow food by contracting
muscles (tongue) to move food through pharynx
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3. Reflexes will eventually kick in
ii. Peristalsis
1. Involuntary movement of food through the esophagus, stomach
and intestine
2. Result is net forward movement of chyme
3. Two parts to autonomic movement
4. Wave of smooth muscle contractions to move stuff forward
3. Segmentation
a. Mechanical digestion
i. Breaking food into smaller pieces
ii. Segmentation helps to do this with food or bolus or chyme
b. Also contributes to mechanical process of mixing chyme with digestive juice
(enzymes, acids, etc, to speed much process of breakdown)
c. Helps breakdown the food
d. Main result is isolation of chyme
e. Commonality is it involves smooth muscle contraction and relaxation
f. Keeps chyme from leaving small intestine by isolating chyme which maximizes
time we can hold chyme in small intestine for absorption
4. Chemical digestion
a. We do mechanical breakdown to get to chemical breakdown
b. Digestive system can only touch the surface of the chyme
c. We have enzymes that attach to surface of chyme to break it up chemically
i. Breaks off glucose molecule surface
d. Mechanical digestion allows us to maximize chemical digestion (chemical
reaction)
e. Manageable molecule
i. A molecule our digestive system can consume
1. Protein is too large to be consumed
f. Enzymes secreted by glands (gallbladder, liver, pancreas)
i. Secretes enzymes into lumen
g. Starts in the mouth
i. Salivary glands secretes amylases
1. Attacks carbs
2. We have hard time storing carbs in body after maximizing liver
and muscle storage
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