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Lecture 12

KIN346 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Superior Mesenteric Artery, Esophageal Hiatus, Duodenum

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Danny M Pinicero

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KIN 346
Human Nutrition
October 5
- It is a muscle fibre
- Helps grip food and position the food to be mechanically broken down
- How we speak, reposition the teeth
- Forms a bolus which is a portion of chewed food that will be swallowed
- It is a sensory organ for taste (all in the brain)
Salivary glands
- Produces saliva
- Cleanses the mouth (our mouth is not clean, it’s very dirty because lots of
bacteria, made worse by what we consume or touching of the mouth with the
- Dissolves food through enzymes in saliva for tasting
- Moistening food to reduce friction to make swallowing easier
- Important role in chemical digestion (not mechanical digestion)
- Maximize absorption of the food we consume by breaking down food to
smallest molecular level as possible
- Enzymes in saliva:
- Salivary amylases
- breaks down polysaccharides (complex carbs)
- Comes from intrinsic gland (buccal glands)
- We also have 3 extrinsic glands which are separate from internal
structure of mouth
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- Exocrine glands
- They have small tubes that go from gland and
empties content to oral cavity
- They produce chemicals and has a tube that
connects one organ to another organ to secrete
their products into oral cavity
- Parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands are the
three types of extrinsic glands that produce saliva
Mastication (chewing)
- Mixes the food with saliva
- Sets the stage for chemical digestion
- Increases surface area for saliva to do chemical digestion
- Mechanical breakdown of food
- Voluntary and reflexive muscle activity
- Similar to walking
- Easy to multitask so it is reflexive
- 1st part is conscious decision
- 2nd part (will not go into the biomechanics of swallowing)
- Getting food from oral cavity to esophagus
- 1st phase of swallowing is buccal phase
- This is conscious decision to push bolus down with tongue
- voluntary activity
- Skeletal muscle used
- 2nd part is reflexive
- Brain stem takes over (lower pons and medulla)
- Cranial nerves send signal for 2nd phase of swallowing
- Sensory and motor component
- Steps
- Tongue mlocks off mouth
- Step 2
- Larynx rises and is covered by epiglottis for food to go into esophagus
and not into the lungs
- Esophagus → stomach (air can go through this pathway)
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