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Lecture 11

KIN346 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Glycogen Synthase, Glycolysis, Citrulline

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Danny M Pinicero

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KIN 346
Human Nutrition
October 19
Cellular energy
- Used to:
- Move molecules (in and outside of cells or organelles)
- Move charged element (sodium ion, Na+, Ca++, K+)
- Generate force
- Energy can be invested
- Energy is housed in (ATP)
- The stored chemical bonds holding the phosphates together
Energy for muscle
(matches rate at which you are spending energy, not much storage or debt)
- Bioenergetics
- Formation of ATP
- PC breakdown (phosphocreatine)
- Degradation of glucose
- Oxidative formation of ATP
- Aerobic pathways (metabolic pathways)
- Requires molecular oxygen (O2)
- Occurs in organelles (mitochondria)
- Process to produce energy starts outside of the organelle
- Oxidative phosphorylation
- Glucose, fat and protein
- Combusted for energy
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- Anaerobic pathways
- Uses macronutrients
- Happens in cell cytoplasm
- No O2
- PC and glycolysis breakdown
- Graph
- Physiology is always respective to time
- % energy contribution vs. physical activity
- Original signal for muscle cell to produce force = alpha motor neuron
(electrical input)
- Quickest way to generate force = use ATP that is on hand (readily available
- Cellular concentration of ATP will decline when spent
- 2nd pathway = PCr
- Short-lived
- Very limited
- Glycolysis
- Still fast
- Carries us further
- Oxidative pathway
- Endless
- Takes time for it to occur
- Exercise intensity decreases
- Cannot sustain high intensity
- Creatine = non-essential
- Found mainly:
- Skeletal muscle
- Heart
- Sperm cells
- Eye cells (retina)
- Getting creatine from meat:
- Cooking meat will cause disrupts creatine molecular structure
- Must eat raw meat
- We make creatine
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