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Lecture 17

KIN 346 Lecture 17: Lesson 5 - Carbohydrates


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KIN346
Professor
D P
Lecture
17

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KIN 346 Human Nutrition
D.M. Pincivero, Fall 2016
80
LECTURE - CARBOHYDRATES
WHAT IS A CARBOHYDRATE?
Is a “hydrate of carbon”
Manufactured by plants
Ex: making a glucose molecule
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Types of dietary carbohydrates:
1) Sugars
2) Starch
3) Fibre
The difference between the 3 carbohydrates is the linkages between the molecules; body will
digest and use starch differently as opposed to sugar or fiber
SUGARS (Simple carbohydrates)
Monosaccharides: simplest form of CHO (primary = glucose, fructose, galactose)
Contains 3 to 9 carbon atoms
Disaccharides: sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose),
maltose (glucose * 2) -> alpha bond is coming out of screen at you
Sugar alcohols
Derived from monosaccharides (monosaccharide that has OH group added to it)
Used as a sweetener (sorbitol made from glucose)….sweetens “sugarless” gum
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KIN 346 Human Nutrition
D.M. Pincivero, Fall 2016
81
Storage form of glucose
*not good at storing large amounts of it
Animals: glycogen
Plants: starch (amylopectin and amylose) & fibre
*every 8-12 glucose molecules has a branch for another linkage to glucose molecules
(effective way to store as much glucose as possible); found in skeletal muscle and liver cells
(glucose store in liver is more densely packed) for every volume of tissue; more molecules
glucose stored in glycogen; ¼ saved as amylose and majority of amylopectin (3/4) is found in
storage in plants; amylose is broken down by amylase (found in mouth and secreted by
pancreas into small intestine); amylase is less bioavailable and amylopectin branches every
25-30 molecules
FIBRE
Non-digestible carbohydrates (in plants)
*dietary cholesterol can only be absorbed if taken alongside fatty acids; insoluble fiber can
control how much food is absorbed; too much results in nutritional insufficiencies. Dietary
fiber is natural; functional fiber is added fiber
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KIN 346 Human Nutrition
D.M. Pincivero, Fall 2016
82
*need constant supply of glucose and for it to be broken down
Ketone molecules = small byproducts of fat and protein breakdown that are converted to acetyl coa;
too many ketone bodies messes with pH; if accumulate in tissue, can mess with bioenergetics (reduce
enzyme activity and possible denature proteins)
SO, WHY DO WE NEED TO EAT CARBOHYDRATES?
1) ENERGY needs
Fuel source for neurons (only uses glucose except during starvation….can uptake
protein.
Red blood cells only use glucose.
Need CHO to metabolize other fuels……”Fat burns in a flame of carbohydrates”
2) Pregnancy: fetus and placenta “feed” on glucose
Gestational diabetes: elevated blood glucose during pregnancy
3) Spares muscle protein degradation for energy
Glucose must be synthesized from muscle protein
Amino acids converted to: (1) ketone bodies, (2) fatty acids, (3) glucose
1 and 3 are with low glucose intake and low caloric intake; wrt to #2 (opposite of 1 and 3) is
due to the caloric intake exceeding the basic needs (carbohydrates)
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