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KIN346 Lecture Notes - Insulin Resistance, Nutrasweet, Brown Sugar

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Rhonna Hanning

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Topic 4: Carbohydrates –Sugars, Starch, &
Introduction to Carbohydrates
Primary role is to supply body with energy
Primary sources includes: grains, legumes, fruits & vegetables, dairy
Divided into categories based on # of sugar units they contain
– DRI:
130 g/day minimum recommendation
45-60% of energy
Simple Carbohydrates
The simple CHO include:
Monosaccharides (single sugars)
Disaccharides (two bonded sugars)
Monosaccharides are composed of 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6
oxygen atoms represented by the chemical formula C6H12O6 (CHO)
The monosaccharides:
Glucose –serves as the essential energy source for the body
Fructose –is the naturally occurring sugar found in fruits and honey
Galactose –binds with glucose to form milk sugar (lactose)

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Composed of pairs of monosaccharides all containing glucose
Glucose + glucose = maltose
Glucose + fructose = sucrose
Glucose + galactose = lactose
Added Sugars
DRI added sugars - <25% of energy
WHO, CDA recommend <10% of energy
Added sugars include: white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup solids,
high-fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose
sweetener, liquid fructose, honey molasses, dextrose
Leading source of added sugars in the diet –soft drinks
Soft drinks –regular 14.3%
Milk – 14%
Fruit – 10.6%
Confectionery – 10.3%
Fruit juice – 9.2%
– Trends:
Male teenagers (14-18yrs) consume most amount of sugars in Canada
Average intake 41 teaspoons of sugar per day
Males > females
Canadians on average consume 110 grams of sugar per day
Complex Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides –large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides
Glycogen and starch –provide a storage form of glucose
Fibre –provides structure to plant foots
Glucose that is not needed immediately for energy is stored in the body as

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Stored in the liver and muscle in highly branched chains which allow for the quick
release of energy when it is needed
Starch is composed of long chains of glucose molecules –derived from plant
Primary sources include: grains, potatoes, and legumes
Fibres are polysaccharides but differ from starches in that their bonds cannot be
broken down by digestive enzymes –nondigestible
Soluble –dissolves in water & forms gels
E.g., gums, pectin
Insoluble –does NOT dissolve in water or form gels
E.g., cellulose
Resistant starches –starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small
– DRI:
Females – 19-50 years: 25g/day
Males – 19-50 years: 38g/day
Current intakes:
Males ~ 17g/day
Females ~ 13g/day
WHO –recommends an upper limit of 40g/day
Too much fibre:
May prevent those with small capacity from meeting
energy needs
GI distress
May interfere with mineral absorption
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