KIN346 Lecture Notes - Lipoprotein, Corn Oil, Resveratrol

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5 Nov 2011
Department
Course
Topic 5: Lipids
Fats/Lipids
– Triglycerides
Fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids (SFA)
Monounsurated fatty acids (MUFA)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
– Phospholipids
– Cholesterol
Plant sterols
Roles of Fats in the Body
1) Cell structure –cell membranes
2) Fuel and energy storage –9kcal/g, long term storage
3) Hormones –steroids, testosterone
4) Protection –cushions internal organs
5) Thermoregulation –provides heat
6) Transportation –lipoproteins, fat soluble vitamins
Structure of Lipids
Fatty acids
– Glycerol
– Triglycerides
O-3 and O-6 fats
Hydrogenation
Methyl group
Carboxyl group
Essential fatty acid
18 carbons
2 C=C bonds
Omega-6 n-6
Polyunsaturated
Linoleic acid
1
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Glycerol backbone
Mixed triacylglycerol
3 fatty acids
– SFA
– MUFA
– PUFA
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)
Alpha linolenic (APA) and linolenic (LA) acids are essential fatty acids
ALA (18:3 omega-3) serves as a precursor for eicoapentaenoic acid (EPA
20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6, n-3) HUFAs (highly
unsaturated fatty acids)
LA (18:2 omega-6) undergoes elongation and desaturation to form arachidonic
acid (20:4, n-6)
The Pathway From One Omega-6 Fatty Acid to Another
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Hydrogenation
What is hydrogenation?
Adding H to UFA
More solid
Less susceptible to oxidation
What does it produce?
Cis fatty acid
Trans fatty acid
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