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LS 202 (89)
Lecture

Week 1

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Department
Legal Studies
Course
LS 202
Professor
Susan Brophy
Semester
Winter

Description
Week One Overview  Crime in Canada • Cases that make it to the appeal stage set new common law precedents • 25% of Canadians are victims of crime per year, of which only 31% report it to police. o Victim often knows perpetrator o Site of most violence is the home. • Most crimes reported to police do not result in charges, most of those which are, are  resolved without trial and found guilty o Of that less than 10% of cases go to trial o Acquittal only in 3% of criminal cases o Rarely appeals • Cases that make it to the appeal stage set new common law precedents • 1 in 10 offenders are a woman o 37% of women in custody are aboriginal Criminal Process • Enact law: legislature makes conduct illegal • Enforce law: only if there has been a breach o Exceptions: prostitution, drugs • Decision: level of charge, what stream to go through • Defense council: plea bargain: plead/bail o Preliminary Inquiry: more serious o Jury: most serious – murder • Trial • Sentencing: prison • $10 billion/year: o Police: 60% o Corrections: 25% o Court Processes: 9% o Legal Aid: 6% Sources of Criminal Law • Constitution:     including the charter o Most supreme law, over rules statutes • Legislature:       including criminal code;  o Statute; parliamentary process that becomes law 1 [Type text] o Cannot violate charter  • Common:         Laws made on appeal stage; judge made law                      Law      based on precedent • International:    Universal declaration of human rights terrorism, war       Law               crimes, torture       Criminal Offences • Enacted by federal parliament • Offences under the criminal code:  o Assault; protecting body o Theft: protecting property o Fire Arms / Drunk Driving: safety o Anti­Obscenity / Drug Possession: Good behaviours • Why are some offences inherently wrong? o Drug trafficking: manipulation of others, no benefit to country, harms body  Moral dimension: what are reasonable expectations?  • Prostitution • Aims of criminal Code o Denouncement: you are bad o Punishment: making you pay for it ­ Fine; Imprisonment o Deterrence: have knowledge of what will happen o Risk Prevention: Collateral Damage  ­ Prevent similar / side effects o Harm Prevention: Prevent Harm o Incapacitation: removing criminal from society o Rehabilitation: help people come back into society o Reparation: Victim gets something in return; movement towards money Regulatory Offences • Offences regulated by federal, provincial, or municipalities. • Usually under provincial jurisdiction • Majority of Offences: parking tickets, speeding tickets, citation for drunk and disorderliness,  health and safety regulations, environmental offences • Purpose: deter/prevent risky behaviour, rather than punish  • No criminal record  ­ to a certain extent • Usually results in a fine • Mostly applies to corporations – cannot be incarcerated – pay fine instead 2 Week One Criminal Law and the Constitution • Only federal parliament can enact criminal laws o Provincial can regulate / punish • Criminal law may be unconstitutional if it infringes on a right or freedom protected under  the charter and cannot be justified under section 1 The Elements of Criminal 
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