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LS101 Lecture Notes - Canada Evidence Act, Narcotic Control Act, Indictable Offence

Legal Studies
Course Code
Frances Chapman

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LS 101 – Oct. 17 18/10/2007 05:36:00
Canadian Criminal Code (CCC)
Narcotics Control Act
Division of Powers
Actus Reus
Physical action that constitutes a crime with evidence of that
unlawful conduct (can be minimal e.g. waving down a car while
soliciting for prostitution)
Can be a continuing act, not just a one-time act e.g. Fagen and
resting car on policeman’s foot
Can also be an omission e.g. neglect
Must be voluntary, from a willing mind
Reasonable person test to what that person expected to
happen/result from their action
Mens Rea
Requirement that a guilty mind accompany the act that constitutes
a crime
Intent to do the act knowing the consequences or proceeded with
reckless disregard (impaired)
Motive – separate from Mens Rea

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Actus Reus
Menus Rea
(must be voluntary)
*prohibited harm
*MALA IN SE = Bad in themselves
*MALA PROHIBITA – because the Law says they are wrong
Mens Rea/Mistake of fact – R. v. Ladue
Indignity to a corpse
Sexual relations when he thought Veronica was sleeping, while she
was, in fact, dead
1) Intentionally
e.g. incest – S. 155 (1)
2) Recklessness – R. v. Sansregret
S. 433 – damage by fire or explosion to property (arson)
When you foresee it may occur (doesn’t have to be certain)
Indifferent to the consequences
3) Negligence – criminal negligence – S. 219
Everyone is criminally negligent who

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oIn doing anything, or
oIn omitting to do anything that is his duty to do,
Shows wanton or reckless disregard for the lives or safety of other
4) Offences of Absolute or Strict Liability
S. 351 – Possession of Break-in Instruments
Burden of Proof
Has to be some degree of moral certainty that this person is guilty
beyond a reasonable doubt
Onus – responsibility to prove guilt/innocence
Presumption of Innocence
Ignorance of the Law
Can only testify to what is within their knowledge
No hearsay – only allowed in extremely narrow cases
Voir dire
Pg.151 – R. v. Feaney
Who can be a witness? – Canada Evidence Act (CEA)
oYou do not have to testify against yourself – this cannot have
an adversarial effect on the accused
However, if you do testify, you must answer all
questions honestly
oHusband/wife testimony
Cannot be compelled to disclose any communication
made with one another during the course of their
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