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Parties and Inchoate Offences.docx

Legal Studies
Course Code
Frances Chapman

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Parties and Inchoate Offences
Tuesday, February 12, 2013
9:50 AM
1. Parties to an Offence
o Not just individuals
Corporate organizations
o "principal" who committed the offence the "aider" who enabled someone else to commit the
criminal act, the "abettor" who encouraged another person to commit a crime, and a
o PRINCIPAL: someone who actually committed the offence and has the mens rea and actus
reus required for the particular crime. There may be more than one principal
o AIDER: enabling (or omitting to do something) that allows someone else to commit a crime
o ABETTOR: encouraging another to commit a crime
o COUNSELLOR: an inidivdual who, through acts or words, induces a person to commit the
offences they desire
o 21. (1) Everyone is a party to an offence who
Actually commits it;
Does or omits to do anything for the purpose of aiding any person to commit it; or
Abets any person in committing it
o Assists the principal is EQUALLY culpable for the same offence
2. Aiding and Abetting
o Aiding is helping WITHOUT encouragement or instigation, and abetting means promoting or
instigating a crime to be committed
Communication that would encourage and some that would encourage without actually
Supplies a weapon, acts a lookout or derives the "getaway" car
Aid or abet the assistance must have been rendered before ro during the course
of the offence
Helping after the offence makes one an accessory after the fact
o R.v Kulbacki
o R.v. Laurencelle
3. Counselling
o Procure, solicit or incite
o Counselled may not actually commit an offence but simply help another party
o Must actually be encouraged
o Liable for every offence that the person commits as long as the counsellor knew or ought to
have known that other offences could result from their counselling
o Less participation than aiding and abetting
o R. v. Hamilton (2005)
No crime??
4. Accessories After the Fact
o Very serious offence and holds a maximum of 14 years of imprisonment
o Crime must have been committed
o Knowledge r wilful blindness that the party they are helping has committed a criminal offence
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