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Management Sciences
MSCI 211
Shahed Alam

Review Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior : A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behavior within organizations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness Unit of Analysis Organizational Behavior individual Groups Organization System Organization : A consciously coordinated social unit: composed of a group of people functioning on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Building Blocks of OB Social Political Phychology Sociology Psychology Anthropology Science Consistency: is a result of written and unwritten rules , Consistency in behaviour, if found, can be used to predict behaviour. Systematic Study: The examination of behavior in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific evidence, about causes and effect in relationship Note: - Predictions about human behaviour are at best probabilistic, not absolute since OB concepts must reflect situational or contingency conditions. Benefits of learning about OB : - Systematic analysis of behavior will improve our accuracy in understanding, explaining and predicting behaviour. - Help us behave better in organizations and groups as well. - Can help us manage well and makes for better corporations leads to greater organizational commitment, may improve organizational citizenship. Research Methods Laboratory Field Case Study Field Study Aggregate Quantitative Experiment Experiment Reviews or Meta-Analysis Contingency approach: An approach taken by OB that considers behavior within the context in which it occurs Causality: A hypothesis, by definition, implies a relationship. That is, it implies a presumed cause and effect Theory: describes a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain and predict phenomena Competing Values Framework 1- Internal-External Dimension 2- Flexibility-Control Dimension Note: - Every time we go up in the levels in the unit of analysis , it (the challenges) becomes more complex Basic OB Model: 1- Individual : - Job Satisfaction - Individual Differences - Behaving ethically 2- Group: - Teamwork -Diversity 3- Organization Systems: - Productivity : A performance measure - Effectiveness: The achievement of goals. - Efficiency: The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Global Competition: Impact : -Reduce cost - Increase productivity -Improve quality -Face mergers or acquisition or alliances - Adjust to environment changes (demand, technology and economy ) - Learn new ways of thinking, new ways of doing business. -Have to learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity, uncertainty, and unpredictability -Outsourcing -Learn to work with different cultures Note: -Outsourcing is a direct and arguably the strongest result of competition from the Global Environment. Perception, Personality, and Emotions Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Factors Influencing perception: 1- The Perceiver : Attitudes, Motives, Interests, Expectations ,Past Experiences 2- The Target: Novelty, Motion, Sound, Size, Background, Proximity 3- The Situation : Time, Work Setting, Social Setting Perceptual Errors: 1-Attribution Theory : determine Either internally or externally then: - Consensus: Person , if the person acts like other people ( Internal ) - Consistency: Time, on a period of time ( Internal ) - Distinctiveness : situation, is the person acting dis ( external ) How Attribution Gets Distorted Fundamental Attribution Error o The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others behavior. Self-Serving Bias o The tendency to attribute ones own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for own failures on external factors. 2-Selective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes, Thus since we see what we want to see, the result could be unwarranted conclusions, which is a problem 3-Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. The halo effect does not operate at random 4-Contrast Effect A persons evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered. 5-Projection Attributing ones own characteristics to other people. 6-Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs. Advantages: - It helps us simplify a complex world - It permits us to maintain consistency - It is easier to deal with a large number of stimuli if we use stereotypes. Disadvantage: - Inaccurately stereotype - Prejudice: An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group. Can lead to negative consequences (discrimination),negative emotional content 7- Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others. (Peoples expectation determine their behaviour) Personality The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others. The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Determinants: Heredity temperament, reflex, energy level, etc. Environmental Factors culture in which raised, norms among family and friends, etc. Situational Conditions different aspects of personality shows in different situations. Personality Traits: Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behaviour. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in particular Situations
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