Review Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior : A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and
structure on behavior within organizations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving
organizational effectiveness Unit of Analysis
individual Groups Organization
Organization : A consciously coordinated social unit:
composed of a group of people
functioning on a relatively continuous basis
to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Blocks of OB
Phychology Sociology Psychology Anthropology Science
Consistency: is a result of written and unwritten rules , Consistency in behaviour, if found, can be used
to predict behaviour.
Systematic Study: The examination of behavior in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific
evidence, about causes and effect in relationship
- Predictions about human behaviour are at best probabilistic, not absolute since OB
concepts must reflect situational or contingency conditions.
Benefits of learning about OB :
- Systematic analysis of behavior will improve our accuracy in understanding,
explaining and predicting behaviour.
- Help us behave better in organizations and groups as well.
- Can help us manage well and makes for better corporations leads to greater
organizational commitment, may improve organizational citizenship. Research
Case Study Field Study Aggregate Quantitative
Experiment Experiment Reviews or Meta-Analysis
Contingency approach: An approach taken by OB that considers behavior within the context in which it
Causality: A hypothesis, by definition, implies a relationship. That is, it implies a presumed cause and
Theory: describes a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain
and predict phenomena
Competing Values Framework
1- Internal-External Dimension
2- Flexibility-Control Dimension
- Every time we go up in the levels in the unit of analysis , it (the challenges) becomes
Basic OB Model:
1- Individual : - Job Satisfaction
- Individual Differences
- Behaving ethically
2- Group: - Teamwork
3- Organization Systems: - Productivity : A performance measure
- Effectiveness: The achievement of goals.
- Efficiency: The ratio of effective work output to the input
required to produce the work.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirements, but that
nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Impact : -Reduce cost
- Increase productivity -Improve quality
-Face mergers or acquisition or alliances
- Adjust to environment changes (demand, technology and economy )
- Learn new ways of thinking, new ways of doing business.
-Have to learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity, uncertainty, and
-Learn to work with different cultures
-Outsourcing is a direct and arguably the strongest result of competition from the Global
Perception, Personality, and Emotions
Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment.
Factors Influencing perception:
1- The Perceiver : Attitudes, Motives, Interests, Expectations ,Past Experiences
2- The Target: Novelty, Motion, Sound, Size, Background, Proximity
3- The Situation : Time, Work Setting, Social Setting
1-Attribution Theory : determine Either internally or externally then:
- Consensus: Person , if the person acts like other people ( Internal )
- Consistency: Time, on a period of time ( Internal )
- Distinctiveness : situation, is the person acting dis ( external )
How Attribution Gets Distorted
Fundamental Attribution Error
o The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors
when making judgments about others behavior.
o The tendency to attribute ones own successes to internal factors while putting the
blame for own failures on external factors.
People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and
attitudes, Thus since we see what we want to see, the result could be unwarranted conclusions,
which is a problem
Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. The halo effect does not operate at random
A persons evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered.
Attributing ones own characteristics to other people.
Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs.
- It helps us simplify a complex world
- It permits us to maintain consistency
- It is easier to deal with a large number of stimuli if we use stereotypes.
- Inaccurately stereotype
An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a
particular stereotyped group.
Can lead to negative consequences (discrimination),negative emotional content
7- Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived
by others. (Peoples expectation determine their behaviour)
The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual
reacts to and interacts with others. The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and
interacts with others.
temperament, reflex, energy level, etc.
culture in which raised, norms among family and friends, etc.
different aspects of personality shows in different situations.
Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behaviour.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in particular