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MSCI211 Lecture Notes - Fundamental Attribution Error, Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction

Management Sciences
Course Code
Shahed Alam

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Review Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior : A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and
structure on behavior within organizations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving
organizational effectiveness Unit of Analysis
Organization : A consciously coordinated social unit:
composed of a group of people
functioning on a relatively continuous basis
to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Consistency: is a result of written and unwritten rules , Consistency in behaviour, if found, can be used
to predict behaviour.
Systematic Study: The examination of behavior in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific
evidence, about causes and effect in relationship
- Predictions about human behaviour are at best probabilistic, not absolute since OB
concepts must reflect situational or contingency conditions.
Benefits of learning about OB :
- Systematic analysis of behavior will improve our accuracy in understanding,
explaining and predicting behaviour.
- Help us behave better in organizations and groups as well.
- Can help us manage well and makes for better corporations leads to greater
organizational commitment, may improve organizational citizenship.
individual Groups Organization
Blocks of OB
Phychology Sociology Social
Psychology Anthropology Political

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Contingency approach: An approach taken by OB that considers behavior within the context in which it
Causality: A hypothesis, by definition, implies a relationship. That is, it implies a presumed cause and
Theory: describes a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain
and predict phenomena
Competing Values Framework
1- Internal-External Dimension
2- Flexibility-Control Dimension
- Every time we go up in the levels in the unit of analysis , it (the challenges) becomes
more complex
Basic OB Model:
1- Individual : - Job Satisfaction
- Individual Differences
- Behaving ethically
2- Group: - Teamwork
3- Organization Systems: - Productivity : A performance measure
- Effectiveness: The achievement of goals.
- Efficiency: The ratio of effective work output to the input
required to produce the work.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that
nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
Global Competition:
Impact : -Reduce cost
- Increase productivity
Case Study Field Study Laboratory
Experiment Aggregate Quantitative
Reviews or Meta-Analysis

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-Improve quality
-Face mergers or acquisition or alliances
- Adjust to environment changes (demand, technology and economy )
- Learn new ways of thinking, new ways of doing business.
-Have to learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity, uncertainty, and
-Learn to work with different cultures
-Outsourcing is a direct and arguably the strongest result of competition from the Global
Perception, Personality, and Emotions
Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment.
Factors Influencing perception:
1- The Perceiver : Attitudes, Motives, Interests, Expectations ,Past Experiences
2- The Target: Novelty, Motion, Sound, Size, Background, Proximity
3- The Situation : Time, Work Setting, Social Setting
Perceptual Errors:
1-Attribution Theory : determine Either internally or externally then:
- Consensus: Person , if the person acts like other people ( Internal )
- Consistency: Time, on a period of time ( Internal )
- Distinctiveness : situation, is the person acting dis ( external )
How Attribution Gets Distorted
Fundamental Attribution Error
o The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors
when making judgments about others’ behavior.
Self-Serving Bias
o The tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal factors while putting the
blame for own failures on external factors.
2-Selective Perception:
People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and
attitudes, Thus since we see what we want to see, the result could be unwarranted conclusions,
which is a problem
3-Halo Effect:
Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic.
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