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Lecture 4

MSCI211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Job Performance, Performance Appraisal, Flextime

Management Sciences
Course Code
Shahed Alam

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Module 4 Individual: Motivating Self and Others
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs:
1. Physiological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.
2. Safety: Security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
3. Social: Affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
4. Esteem: Internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and
external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
5. Self-actualization. Drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes
growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment.
Job engagement: the investment of an employee’s physical, cognitive, and emotional
energies into job performance.
How Can Jobs Be Redesigned?
Job Rotation: The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another with
similar skill requirements at the same organizational level.
Job Enrichment: Job enrichment expands jobs by increasing the degree to which the
worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work.
Alternative Work Arrangements
Job Sharing: allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
Telecommuting: No commuting, flexible hours, freedom to dress as you please, and
few or no interruptions from colleagues.
How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs
Piece-Rate Pay: fixed sum for each unit of production completed
Merit-Based Pay: pays for individual performance based on performance appraisal
Skill-Based Pay: bases pay levels on how many skills employees have or how many
jobs they can do
Profit-Sharing: distributes compensation based on some established formula
designed around a company’s profitability
Gain sharing: formula-based group incentive plan
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